Category Archives: ATH 351-01

Human Evolution
TR 2:15 pm – 3:55
Allyn 225
Anna W. Bellisari

ATH 351-01

Otzi (the iceman)

Sept 1991

Otzi’s death

  • arrowhead buried in shoulder
    • CT scan
    • severed artery or vein
  • deep cuts on hands
  • killer unknown


  • flint dagger
  • copper axe (style dates find to 5300 BP)

46yo male

The obesity epidemic: evolutionary origins of human obesity

overweight & obesity

  • overweight
    • BMI (kg/m2) > 25
  • Obesity
    • BMI &gte; 30
    • excess body fat
      • visceral adipose tissue (VAT)
  • Energy in > energy out

expensive tissue hypothesis

  • large brain
  • reduced gut
  • high quality diet

Early humans: H. erectus

  • encephalization
  • larger body
  • increased fertility
  • extended lifespan
  • emigration to temperate climates
  • invention of stone tools
  • hunting & meat eating
  • use of fire for cooking & warmth

archaic humans: H. neanderthalensis

  • very large brains
  • stocky muscular bodies
  • arctic climate adaptations
  • extinction

modern humans: H. sapiens

  • paleolithic diet
  • periodic food scarcity
  • physical activity
  • art
  • energy in = energy out

neolithic revolution

  • food production
    • dietary shift
      • less variety, animal protein
      • more cereal grains, dairy products
    • chronic & intermittent food scarcity
  • sedentism
    • permanent dwellings, food storage
    • increased populations
    • settlement density

origin of agriculture

  • malnutrition
    • porotic hyperostosis
    • linear enamel hypoplasia
    • cribra orbitalia
  • disease
  • high level of phys. activity

industrial revolution

  • technology & mass production
    • increased consumption
      • processed foods
    • decreased physical activity
  • energy in > energy out

human evolution: nutrition transition

  • paleolithic hunter/gatherers
    • diet: low carb, fiber, fat; hi protein
    • high energy demands: activity, warmth
    • seasonal food shortages
  • neolothic farmers
    • diet: hi carb, fiber; lo fat, protein
    • high energy demands: work
    • seasonal food shortages
  • modern Americans
    • diet: high in carb, fat, protein; lo fiber
    • low energy demands: work, leisure time, TV
    • no food shortages

evolutionary mismatch

  • evolutionary heritage
    • hi phys activity
  • modern
    • lo phys act



ATH 351-01

Homo sapiens

–       Homo sapiens Origin

o   There is an idea of combining the different species branches of homo and forming them into one and calling them all Homo sapiens.

–       African Origin of Homo sapiens

o   Africa – 200,000ya

o   Middle East – 100,000ya

o   Australia – 55,000ya

§  As to how they made it to this area, it is being debated and still being studied.

o   Europe – 46-40,000ya

o   Asia – 30,000ya

–       Homo sapiens: Africa

o   Fossils have been found in Eastern Africa

§  Have been dated to go back as far as over 200,000ya.

o   There have been fossils found in Morocco in Africa, dated back to 160,000ya.

§  Fossils of an 8 year old child have been found, since the development of molars and wisdom teeth have been much slower

o   It appears that the species left from Eastern Africa into the Middle East into Israel and then into Europe. However, they continued into Saudi Arabia, Iran, and India.

–       Homo sapiens: Middle East

o   There have been two skulls that have been found in Israel that resemble modern humans. They to date about 100,000ya.

–       Homo sapiens: Asia

o   Fossils found in Tianyuan Cave, China

§  Mandible with chin

  • Chin makes a sign of these being modern humans

§  Femur and tibia

  • Structure shows that they ate fresh water fish as well

–       Homo sapiens: Europe

o   Traveled from Eastern Europe into Western Europe and Central Europe.

o   By the time they arrived to Europe, it wasn’t as cold as before, since it was once very Archaic and cold.

o   With the arrival of modern humans in Europe, there is a decline in population size. The reasoning has not been solved yet.

§  Muierii

§  Oase

  • Both have fossils found in their caves

§  Danube River

–       Homo sapiens Timeline

o   Oldest are African

o   Second is Near East

o   China

o   Australia

o   Europe

–       Homo sapiens: autopamorphies

o   Globular cranium

o   High vertical forehead

o   Small, orthognathic face

o   Canine fossa

o   Small teeth

o   China (mental eminence)

o   Cranial capacity -1350cc

–       Basicranial flexure: language

o   There is a huge exaggeration of the basicranial flexure compared to other species to help support our head along with giving the idea of language

–       Homo sapiens: skeletal features

o   Tall, slender body

o   Gracile skeleton

o   Thin bones

o   Long limbs

o   Thorax barrel-shaped

o   Pelvis: vertical iliac blades

o   Low level sexual dimorphism

o   Long lifespan

–       Upper Paleolithic tool cultures

o   Aurigancian (40-30,000 ya)

o   Gravettian

o   Solutrian

o   Magdelenian

§  All have a connect to the term “Blade”

  • These have also been fire-treated

o   Were also big-game hunters, but began to add smaller game, shell-fish and turtles into their diet as well

§  Considered to be the best diet to have

o   There are also signs that they may have lived in very large social groups as well in caves.

–       Upper Paleolithic Culture

o   Klein: Cultural Revolution Hypothesis

§  The change of size in the brain may have cause a sudden change and growth development or objects and culture

§  Sewing together clothing, animal teeth, shells

§  They used stone, ivory, bone, and may other objects.

§  There was also a great advancement in hunting tools.

  • Placing an arrowhead on a long wooden post to create a spear was also developed

§  There could be the possibly to marking off a time, such as the days of the lunar cycle pregnancies, etc.

§  A yellow mineral may have been used as decoration for rituals and burials

§  There may have been evidence of making cloth and having it be dyed

§  Lived in tents, caves, and houses

§  They used boiling stones and ovens to cook foods alongside water

§  The FOXP2 method may have been developed around this time as well

–       Upper Paleolithic Cravings

o   Many cravings were made out of bone, wood, stone, ivory, and many more. They date to the time of 35,000ya. They have all been found in a cave in Germany.

§  Many of these cravings represent animals and humans

–       Cave Paintings

o   There have been many found all over the world, the ones mostly being European

§  Spain, France, etc.

§  Lascaux cave in France

  • The real one has been closed, but a replica have been created as well

§  Most of the animals that have been painted have all been extinct

–       Upper Paleolithic “Venus” figurines

o   They have been found all over Europe

o   They have been stated to represent fertility

§  Venus of Willendorf

§  Grimaldi is on location where these figured have been found as well

o   Some are craved from ivory and stone

o   27-21,000ya is the average range of these figures

–       African Cultural Origin

o   Brooks & McBrearty: Cultural Evolution Hypothesis

§  Began in Africa much earlier since some objects have been dated to be older

§  One of the sites used to support this: Blombos Cave, South Africa

  • 77,000ya
  • There are bone tools, stones, projectile points made out of bone, sea shells, marine shell beads have been found as well, but those are in Northern Africa.

–       Homo sapiens in America

o   It is believed that people migrated from southern Siberia into what is now Alaska into Northern and Southern America.

o   They used the Beringia, or Bering Strait to come across.

§  There were two times that they could have migrated

o   There is also another way that they could’ve used the glaciers to enter North America, or even a boat to travel along the coast.

o   There is much debate that they may have travel across from Europe instead of Siberia with some artifacts having been found and have being genetically tested.

o   They may have created a different kind of stone tool called Clovis and they have found coprolite (Poop) as well that has been fossilized.

–       Origin of Agriculture

o   Mesolithic Transition

o   Neolithic Revolution

§  Centers of origin

§  Domestication

  • Local plants & animals

o   Cyprus: small suids

  • European Agricultural Expansion

–       Homo sapiens: genetic evidence

o   mtDNA

§  Mitochondrial DNA:

  • Maternal inheritance only

§  Humans little genetic variation

  • Africans most variable (oldest)

§  LCA = African 200kya

  • Molecular clock

o   Y-chromosome

§  ZFY gene

ATH 351-01

The Hobbit

  • H.floresiensis traits
    • very small body & brain (417cc)
    • humerus head rotation incomplete
    • large feet
    • ape-like wrist (pyramidal trapezoid)
    • short legs
    • large premolars
    • flaring iliac bones
    • orthognathous skull
  • LB1: type specimen 18kya

the long foot

  • primitive & modern traits
    • foot length: 196mm (~ chimp, > human)
    • long, robust, curved toe bones
    • lack of well-defined arch (flat foot)
    • fully adducted hallux, but short
  • slow biped

Phylogenetic position

  • H. floresiensis ancestry??
    • H. erectus
    • H. habilis
    • A. afarensis
    • other

Homo Sapiens

Asia: Tianyuan Cave CN

H. sapiens autapomorphies

  • globular cranium
  • high vertical forehead
  • small, orthognathic face
  • canine fossa
  • small teeth
  • chine (mental eminence)
  • cranial capacity ~1350cc

Basicranial flexure: language

skeletal features

  • tall, slender body
  • gracile skeleton
  • thin bones
  • long limbs
  • thorax barrel-shaped
  • pelvis: vertical iliac blades
  • low level sexual dimorphism
  • long lifespan

upper paleolithic tool cultures

  • Aurignacian
  • Gravettian
  • Solutrian
  • Magdalenian

Upper paleolithic culture (Klein: Cultural Revolution Hypothesis)

  • carvings
  • “Venus” figurines

African cultural origin

  • Brooks & McBrearty: cultural evolution hypothesis
  • Blombos cave, S. Africa

H.sapiens in America

Origin of Agriculture

  • Mesolithic Transition
  • Neolithic Revolution
    • centers of origin
    • domestication
      • local plants & animals
        • Cyprus: small suids (pigs)


  • Africal origin
  • tall gracile skeleton
  • round smooth skull
    • large brain, short face, small teeth
  • upper Paleolithic tool cultures
  • migration to AU, N. America
  • art
  • agriculture
  • state formation


ATH 351-01

*** VIDEO ***  NOVA:  Alien from Earth (H. floresiensis)

  • 750kyo tools
  • modern man reached Flores 12kya
  • 13 individuals
  • 1 adult female complete skeleton
  • 400cc
  • LB1 find < 30kyo
  • 10k – 95kyo

ATH 351-01

Homo heidelbergensis (850-100kya)

  • perfectly transitional between erectus & sapiens
  • AFR, AS, EU
  • “premodern humans” graph: 300kya – 225kya
  • between 2d & 3d Pleistocene interglacials

Homo antecessor

  • Gran Dolina cave, Atapuerca, ES
  • 780kya
  • 6 individuals (children, adolescents & adults)
  • definitely not H.erectus based on brain size
  • cut marks on bones suggest possible cannibalism
  • may be H.heidelbergensis, but differences caused diagnosis of antecessor

H.heidelbergensis (very widespread across AF, EU, AS)

  • Kabwe, ZM
  • Bodo, ET
  • Jinnuishan, CN
  • Dali, CN
  • Petralona, GR
  • Boxgrove, UK
  • Steinheim, DE
  • Ceprano, IT
  • Mauer, DE


  • 1500cc brain capacity, avg 1250-1300
  • first indications of chin
  • no definitive info on basicranial flexure allowing for language

Sima de los Huesos: Pit of Bones (Atapuerca)

  • midfacial prognathism
  • clavicle with cutmarks
  • Achulean handaxe
  • skull features similar to H.neanderthalensis, possible ancestor to H.n.

H.heidelbergensis culture

  • tool types
    • Oldowan, Acheulean
    • Sangoan (400kya, only in AFR, stone pick is diagnostic artifact)
    • Mousterian
  • big game hunting (megafauna)
    • 7′ spears
      • Schoningen DE, 400kya
  • Lavallois toolmaking technique
    • AFR origin 300kya, spread to all regions with H.heidelbergensis
    • tool manufacture innovation
    • prepared core & flakes
  • H.heidelbergensis disappears from record ~200kya

Genetic evidence

  • Human-chimp genome comparison (genetic difference 6.4%)
    • differences
      • substitutions, deletions, insertions, duplications, losses – 6.4%
    • rapidly evolving genes in humans
      • genes related to evolution of speech – FOXP2
        • 2 amino acid substitutions = human speech
      • genes involved in neural development & function
        • HAR1F – cortical neuron development in embryo
        • MCPH1 – proliferation & differentiation of neuroblasts
          • regulates brain size
      • genes involved in glucose metabolism
      • co-evolution of brain size and energy metabolism

  • sialic acid (sugar)
    • cell recognition, cell edhesion molecule
    • other primate: Neu5Gc for of sialic acid
    • humand: mutation for lossof Neu5Gc
      • produce only Neu5Ac (a different sialic acid)
    • sialic acid diference relates to human disease
      • malaria, rhum. arth., bronch asth, Alz, MS
    • H.antecessor fossil analysis
      • to determine time of mutation


ATH 351-01

Homo habilis

  • Oldowan choppers, origin of material culture
  • earlierst stone tool industry: 2.5mya, oldest @ Goma Ethiopia
  • shelter evidence, stone circle

Taxonomic controversies

  • H. rudolfensis & H. habilis

Why encephalization?

  • complex social network
  • complex adaptive strategies
    • stone tool manufacture & use
    • shelter construction
  • meat eating
    • source of energy
  • venous radiator
    • temperature control

phylogenetic status: chart

H.Habilis contemporary with A. boisei & A. robustus

Homo erectus

  • AKA H.ergaster, early African variant
  • H.erectus is Asian variant

Pleistocene glaciations chart

Out of Africa, with ice sheet map

Oldest Afr H.erectus

  • Koobi Fora 1.8mya (note back of cheekbone process: important)
  • Nariokotome 1.5mya (appx 9-10 yrs of age at death, 5″ in height)

H.erectus: Asia (DuBois)

  • Trinil 1 mya
  • Sangiran 1.6mya

Asian H.erectus, China

  • Zhoukoudian 770-500kya
  • David Black

Euro H.erectus

  • Ceprano, IT
    • skull
    • 800kya
    • Oldowan tools
  • Venta Micena, ES
    • skull, arm fragments
    • Oldowan tools
    • 1.6 mya

Dmanisi, Georgia

  • H.???
  • Dmanisi, Georgia 1.8mya
  • Oldowan tools
  • brain avg 700-750cc
  • smaller than Nariokotome

H.erectus in TR

  • Kocabas 500kya
  • tubercolosis lesions

taxonomic controversy

  • H.ergaster (AFR)
    • older
    • smaller brain
  • H.erectus (ASIA)
    • more recent
    • larger brain
    • saggital keel
    • sharp occipital angle
  • new fossils from Ileret Kenya
    • intermediate
    • one species (parsimony)
      • H.erectus sensu lato

H.erectus traits

  • continuous, unbroken supraorbital torus
  • sagittal keel
  • modern dentition
  • postorbital constriction, not found in H.sapiens
  • avg brain size 900-1000cc

Grandmother effect — cranial capacity chart, archaic & modern humans, H.erectus, H.habilis, Australopithecines

Endurance running chart, Achilles tendon, gluteus maximus

Achilles tendon conserves 50% of energy from running

encephalization & energy

  • brain radiator (vertebral plexus)
  • expensive tissue hypothesis

H.erectus culture

  • Achelean stone tools – hand axe
  • big game hunting & scavenging
  • control of fire at site: Gesher Benot Ya’aqov 790kya
    • burned flint Acheulean artifacts & wood; hearth
  • bifacial technique
  • handaxe – AFR, EU, ASI
  • choppers – CN

Language & speech: basicranial flexure

  • broad obtuse angle provides high, short throat (chimp)
  • sharp, acute angle provides long throat with low larynx (human, near 90°)

SUMMARY: H.erectus

  • Fast bipedalism
    • long legs, long stride – high efficiency
    • completely terrestrial
  • modern dentition
    • smaller P,M than H.habilis, Paranthropus
  • Large brains
    • 700-1200cc – 1000cc avg
  • Reduced sexual dimorphism
    • female size increased 50%
  • longer lifespan
    • grandparents
  • culture
    • Acheulean tools, shelters, fire
    • scavenging,/hunting, meat eating
  • emigration from AFR
    • colonized EU & AS
    • new environmental adaptations
  • Language (???)
  • co-existed with Paranthropus
  • Only hominin survivor 1mya

ATH 351-01

Dikika Child

age & sex estimation

  • dental CT scans
  • unerupted teeth
  • fit into lower range of australopithecine tooth size
  • indicates female sex
  • approx. 3 years old, est.
  • growth & development closer to chip than human
  • brain volume ~300cc

Lucy’s contemporaries

  • Kenyanthropus platyops
    • flat-faced man
    • fragmented skull
    • 3.5mya Kenya
  • Australopithecus bahrelghazali
    • resembles A. afarensis
    • mandible & teeth
    • 3.5mya Chad

“Little Foot”

  • species unknown
    • complete skeleton
    • partly divergent big toe
    • 3.3mya S. Africa

Darwin program tonight ch 16, Darwin’s Darkest Hour

Evolutionary significance chart

alternative phylogenies

  • A. afarensis is common ancestor of other Australopithecines and humans
  • A. afarensis is not ancestral to A. africanus

Ardipithecus ramidus – origin of bipedalism – oldest hominin fossil skeleton known

  • remains of 36 individuals available
  • ARA-VP 6/500
  • 110 specimens
  • oldest confirmed
  • originally called Australpithecus ramidus, changed later
  • discovered Aramis, Ethiopia (western Afar Rift)
  • 6000 other species fossils discovered in same strata, indicates woodland environment
  • kills savannah hypothesis
  • 4.4mya, via argon dating

Pelvis & femur – graphics

  • wide, flaring pelvic ilia
  • lower pelvis apelike
  • insertion points for muscle indicate large glutes, indicative of bipedalism
  • insertion points for large hamstring, indicative of climbing

Pelvis comparison chart

hand & foot bone comparison

arms & legs approx. same size: intermembral index .95

no evidence for brachiation or knuckle-walking

Os peroneum limits big toe abduction

Ardi’s skull & dentition

  • cranial capacity
  • incisor breadth
  • postcanine length
  • maxillary canine height
  • lower face prognathic but not like chimp
  • looks similar to Sahelanthropus
  • no canine premolar honing complex

skeletal diagram

phylogenetic significance chart

last common ancestor Humans shared with chimps

ATH 351-01

*** VIDEO: In search of human origins (Nova)  ***


Hadar Ethiopia, Awash river

A. Afarensis

  • context
    • Ethiopia (Hadar), Tanzania (Laetoli)
    • 4-3mya
  • Discoverer
    • Don Johanson (1973)
  • Derived traits
    • valgus knee
    • short broad pelvis
    • convergen t hallux
    • footprints: heel depression, arch
    • centrally located FM


First family:

knee joint

  • valgus knee hips wider which means that the femur connected to tibia at angle
  • laetloi, curved finger bones
  • short thumbs

Lucy pelvis diagram, compared to human

primitive traits

  • small brain 400cc
  • prognatic
  • sexual dimorphism
  • nuchal crest pronounced. long & low
  • funnel ribcage

skulls first based on fragments, full skull found in 1994 to confirm reconstruction

no saggital crest in Lucy species

Dentition: Intermediate traits

  • parallel tooth rows
  • flat palate
  • relatively large canines
  • semi-sectorial premolar
  • small canine diastema
  • no honing complex
  • relatively large molars

A. Afarensis Mandible

  • ramus morphology
    • coronoid process
    • condylar process
    • mandibular notch
  • similar to gorilla, paranthropus
    • coronoid > condylar
    • unlike chimp, human

ATH 351-02

Human evolution (basal hominins)

full articulated skeletons v. rare

all species combinations of primitive, derived, etc traits

African origin (Lake Chad 7mya, Rift Valley 4mya, S.Afr. 3mya)

river habitation @ rift vall.

Dating in Paleoanthro:

  • biochronology (diagnostic/index fossil succession)
  • Stratigraphy
  • paleomagnetism (current: Brunhes normal chronology)
  • dating methods:
    • relative
    • chronometric

Chronometric methods

Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumai)

  • context
    • Lake Chad 7mya
    • woodland habitat
  • discoverer
      • Michel Brunet – 2002
  • derived traits
    • Foramen Magnum central
    • Cranium small, non-Canine/Premolar honing complex
    • reduced prognathism (facial projection)
  • primitive traits
    • small brain (320cc)
    • large Supra-Orbital Torai

orrorin tugenensis

  • context
    • Kenya 6mya
    • forest habitat
  • dicoverers
    • Pickford & Senut 2000
  • Derived traits
    • femur w/thickened neck
    • obturator groove
    • thick molar enamel
  • primitive traits
    • long femoral neck, small head
    • large I&C, small M

ardipithecus kadabba

  • context
    • Ethiopia – 5.5-5.8 mya
    • woodland habitat
  • discoverer
    • Haile-Selassie – 2001
  • derived traits
    • foot bones indicate bipedality
  • primitive traits
    • C/P honing retained

ardipithecus remidus

  • context
    • Ethiopia 4.4mya
    • woodland fauna
  • discoverer
    • Tim White 1994
  • derived traits
    • smaller upper C than apes
    • anterior FM
  • primitive traits
    • thin dental enamel
    • retained C/P honing complex
    • narrow molars

Above: potential hominin — Below: definite hominin

australopithecus anamensis

  • context
    • Kenya, Kanapoi, Allia Bay
    • Ethiopia, Afar
    • 4.2mya
    • dry, open woodland
  • discoverer
    • Meave Leakey 1995
  • derived traits
    • equal tibial condyles
    • wide proximal tibia
  • primitive traits
    • large C, parallel tooth rows

Why bipedalism?

  • free upper limbs for carrying
    • carry tools, infants
    • food provisioning (Lovejoy)
  • reach fruit in small trees
  • see over greater distances
    • predator avoidance
  • reduce heat sress (Wheeler)
  • cover ground between trees
  • increased energy efficiency (Rodman & McHenry)

Piltdown hoax (“Eoanthropus dawsonii”)

  • Darwin’s scenario
    • bipedality, encephalization, culture, language
  • Piltdown 1912 in England
    • fraud determined in 1953
    • FUN dating (fluorine, uranium, nitrogen)
    • human skull & orang mandible
  • eurocentrism
    • colonialism, imperialism

ATH 351-01


Primate Comparative Anatomy

  • Locomotion: VCL
    • Vertical clinging & leaping
    • They never walk on the ground, and mostly hop
      • Strepsirhines
      • Tarsiers
  • Locomotion: Quadrupedalism
    • Terrestrial
      • Old World Monkeys
      • Ischial Callosities – helps them keep the feeling in their limbs
    • Arboreal
      • New World Monkeys
      • Prehensile tail – helps cling to tress, etc.
  • Locomotion: Knuckle-walking & Brachiation
    • Apes
      • Chimps & Bonobos (Use knuckle-walking most of the time)
      • Gorillas (Knuckle-walking)
      • Orangutans (Use knuckle-walking, but it is mostly used on the sides on their hands)
      • Gibbons (Use brachiation more than any other species and usually have long arms and short legs are associated with it)
  • Locomotion: Humans vs. Apes
    • Vertical
    • Bipedal
      • This is the most important difference between humans and apes
      • Usually there is a sign of an arch in a fossil to determine if it is a human or ape
  • Locomotion: Pelvis
    • Innominate
      • Ischium
      • Ilium
      • Pubis
    • Human pelvis is short and board compared to the chimp
    • Apes usually do not have ay trouble giving birth because the canal of the pelvis is much wider for them, along with that weight of the babies. It is much smaller than humans
  • Locomotion: Lower Limb
    • Valgus knee
      • Full extension
    • Great toe adduction
    • Long legs
  • Locomotion: Spine
    • Spine
      • Lumbar curve – lower curve in the lower region of our back, only found in humans
  • Upper Limbs: Human vs. Gorilla
    • Long Thumb – for humans
      • Power vs. precision grip
        • Both chimps and humans have a power grip
    • Straight hand bones
    • Short arm
  • Skull: Posture
    • Nuchal crest
      • Gorilla had a very large nuchal region in their skull, while humans have a very small one
      • Gorillas would also have a very large neck region
    • Foramen magnum – hole for the spine to be connected to the skull and the brain
      • For humans, it is almost in the center of the skull
      • For apes, its towards the back of the skull
  • Skull: Jaws
    • Mandible (lower jaw) & Maxilla (upper jaw)
      • Orthognathous – straight jaws (human)
      • Prognathous – projecting jaw (apes)
        • Humans – the mandible/maxilla do not project much
        • Apes – the mandible/maxilla project
  • Skull: Mandible
    • Dental arcade
      • Parabolic
        • For humans, it is perfectly parabolic
      • Parallel
        • For apes, they are parallel or rectangular
    • Chin & simian shelf
      • Our support is outside of the jaw, while apes are inside
  • Skull: Boy Crests
    • Supraorbital torus
      • For apes, theirs is very bony and protruding
      • Humans do not have any
    • Sagittal crest
      • Humans do not have one
      • Apes have rather large ones and are very noticeable in the skull
        • Females do not have large ones, while males do
  • Skull: Cranial Capacity
    • Ape cranium
      • 350-400 cc average
    • Human cranium
      • 1350 cc average
  • Dentition: Heterodonty
    • Incisors
    • Canines
    • Premolars
    • Molars
    • Dental formula
      • Ancestral mammal  (3-1-4-3)
      • New World Monkey (2-1-3-3)
      • Old World Monkey, Ape, Human (2-1-2-3)
        • Human Adults have 32 teeth
  • Dentition: Cusp Patterns
    • Molar cusps & grooves
      • Bilophodont
      • Y-5 (Apes and Humans)
  • Dentition: Dental Patterns
    • Canine
      • Size
      • Diastema
  • Dentition: Dental Patterns (Cont.)
    • Premolar
      • Sectorial
      • Bicuspid
  • Speech & Language
    • Human Language Centers
      • Broca’s area – for most its on the left side of the brain and are not located in the chimps, apes, etc.
      • Wernicke’s area
      • Arcuate fasciculus
    • Basicranial flexure
      • The angle made by the base of the skull is very sharp in humans and is very flat in chimps. The very sharp angle in humans is associated with the long throats of humans and long larynx as well.
  • Life Span
    • Longest (average) primate lifespan
    • Long female post-reproductive lifespan
  • Facial Expression: Communication
    • Humans have very distinct faces features, while chimps only have some, while monkeys do not
  • Sexual Dimorphism
    • Extreme
      • Orangutan
      • Gorilla
      • Baboon
    • Intermediate
      • Chimpanzee
      • Bonobo
      • Human
    • Slight
      • Gibbon
  • Age Variation
    • Mandibles: male gorillas
      • 33-year old adult – much more worn, broken teeth and had fillings
      • 23- year old adult – much less worn and some teeth still intact
      • 6.5-year old juvenile  – does not have all of its teeth
    Molecular Evolution – Human Evolution & the Molecular Clock
  • Molecular Studies
    • Immunology: proteins
      • Hemoglobin
    • Amino acid sequencing
      • Beta-hemoglobin
  • DNA Analysis
    • DNA hybridization
      • 98-99% genetic similarity
    • DNA sequencing
      • Comparison of nucleotides
  • Comparative Genomics
    • Human-Chimp genome comparison
      • Differences
        • Substitutions, deletions, insertions, duplications, losses – 6.4%
      • Rapidly evolving genes in humans
        • Genes related to evolution of speech – FOXP2
        • Genes involved in neural development & function
          • HAR1F – brain evolution, active in embryonic brain
          • MCPH1 – microcephalin gene regulated brain size
        • Genes involved in glucose metabolism
    The Molecular Clock


Human Evolutionn: Basal Hominins

*** VIDEO: Secrets of the Dead – the search for the first humans ***