Category Archives: CST 241-04

TR 10:25a-12:05p
Math/Micro 202

CST 241-04

*** VIDEO: Lord of the Dance (Hindu/xtian/Yoruba)

very little dance in xtianity: sexual overtones, mind-body dualism (deny the body in worship)
Yoruba dance: honors ancestors
Hindu dance: symbolizes people falling in love/sexuality (body & soul work together)

Culture Change: past, present, future…

cultural dynamism

  • modes of culture change
    • innovation
    • diffusion
    • transculturation
      • westernization
      • modernization
      • urbanization
      • industrialization
      • globalization
  • 100% American
    • Nanda & Warms: 89

Western Hegemony

  • Europe & N.America after 1400
    • expansion, imperialism, colonialism
      • Guns, Germs & Steel, Diamond 1996
    • industrialization and development of wealth
  • culture change experiences in nonwestern societies
    • colonialism & slavery: forced change
      • Berlin Conference of 1894 – Africa
      • economic motive, political domination
    • voluntary change: deliberate westernization
      • Manus Island: Margaret Mead
    • destruction
      • American indian societies
      • Tasmanians
    • global warming effects today

Current Status

  • most nonwestern societies
    • now independent
      • Haiti
        • Toussaint l’Overture slave revolt in 1804
        • restitution to France for loss of slaves – 100 years
    • underdeveloped
      • World Bank, IMF
      • multinational corps: United Fruit Co.
      • migration
      • population pressures
      • political instability
        • wars, ethnic conflicts

Religion and culture change

  • religious syncretism
    • Haitian Vodoun
    • Native American Church
  • religious resistance
    • millenarian movements
      • Melanesia: cargo cults
    • messianic movements
      • Twelver Shiites: al Mahdi
    • vitalistic movements
      • Rastafarian religion
    • nativistic movements
      • Ghost Dance

theoretical approach

  • post-modernism
    • reaction to history of anthropology
      • ethnographics supported colonialism
      • but also advocacy for oppressed peoples
        • Peru: Vicos project among Quecha (Cornell U.)
    • deconstruction of old cultural interpretations
      • modernization & development
      • old ethnographies have western bias
      • must give voice to poor & oppressed

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CST 241-04

Social Stratification

Organized Inequality

  • Hierarchies of access
    • power, wealth, prestige
  • function
    • motivation to achieve higher status
    • rank based on merit
  • conflict
    • unequal life chances, constant struggle
    • neo-Marxist theoretical approach: Eric Wolf
      • capitalism, colonialism & conflict

Stratification systems

  • class
    • social mobility (achieved status)
      • American Dream: upward mobility
        • downward mobility in US
        • unemployment, divorce
  • Caste
    • hereditary, endogamous (ascribed status)
      • Hindu castes: ritual purity and occupation
      • interdependence of castes
      • dynamics of caste

race & ethnicity

  • race (ascribed status)
    • belief in natural, inherited, unalterable inferiority
    • US eugenics, lynching, white privilege
  • ethnicity (ascribed status)
    • ethnic identity: culture, national origin, history
    • indigenous groups, refugees, immigrants
    • melting pot model or cultural mosaic model

Video: Jefferson/Heming family “reunion”

CST 241-04

definitions

  • Power
    • ability to control resources
  • authority
    • ability to coerce others
  • political ideology
    • shared values that legitimize power
  • ascribed status
    • based on birth
  • achieved status
    • based on accomplishment

Band societies

  • Band
    • small group associated with specific territory
      • foragers
    • bilateral kinship
    • egalitarian
    • decisions by consensus
    • informal social control
      • gossip, ridicule, shunning
      • song duels (Inuit)

Tribal societies

  • group descended from common ancestor
  • unilineal kinship
    • horticulture/pastoral
    • Tiv, Native Amer.
  • Age set/age grade associations
  • temporary chiefs/bigmen
  • warfare
  • mediation
    • Leopard Skin chief
    • Kpelle moot

Chiefdoms

  • centralized leadership in ranked society
  • chief
    • political power, religious authority
  • social status of lineages vary (ranked)
  • horticulturalists & pastoralists
    • Trobriand islanders, Basseri
  • Chief resolves conflicts
    • limited power & authority

state societies

  • centralized government bureaucracy
  • agriculture & industrialism
  • legal monopoly over use of force
    • warfare
    • internal social control
  • citizenship priority over family ties
  • ethnic diversity
  • social stratification
  • hegemony of elite cultural values
  • Zulu, Asante, Inca, China

theoretical approach

  • neo-evolution
    • single theory of cultural evolution (now disproved)
      • all modern societies passed through same stages
        • band – tribe – chiefdom – state

Sex & Gender

gender (ascribed status)

  • universal male dominance
    • manhood puzzle, machismo, honor
  • cultural construction
    • Mead: Arapesh, Mundugamor, Tchambuli
    • woman as weak
    • woman as dangerous
  • alternative genders
    • hijra, xanith, two-spirit

theoretical approaches

  • feminist anthropology
    • theories of female subordination
      • production vs. reproduction (Friedl)
      • public v. domestic sphere (Rosaldo)
      • egalitarian v. stratified societies (Leacock)
  • Sociobiology
    • universal male dominance = adaptive
      • natural selection, genertic basis (Wilson)

CST 241-04

*** VIDEO: Little Injustices, Laura Nader ***

CST 241-04

Kinship and descent: the basis of human society

Kinship relations

  • types of relations
    • consanguineal
    • affinal
  • functions of kinship
    • continuity thru descent
    • support network
  • kinship and cultural rules and customs
    • indentify relatives
    • determine appropriate behavior
      • inheritance, succession, obligations

Descent systems

  • unilineal – 60%
    • patrilineal
    • matrilineal
      • clans & totems (applies to both matri- & patri-)
  • non-unilineal
    • bilateral – 35%
      • kindred
    • double descent – 5%

*** HANDOUT: descent flowcharts
parallel cousins: Brothers’ children marry
cross cousins: Brother’s-sister’s children marry

Classification and terminology

classification systems

  • Eskimo (western societies, foragers)
  • Hawai’ian (Polynesia) — simplest
  • Sudanese (some African regions) — most complex
  • Crow (Native American)
  • Omaha (Native American)
  • Iroquois (Native American)

txt

CST 241-04

test grade: 90% (45 raw score)

Marriage and Family

Marriage

  • definition
    • cultural variations
    • cultural rules regarding establishment of family
  • functions
    • control sexual access
    • care for and socialize children
    • link affinal relatives
    • exchange goods and services
  • culture
    • determines structure and function of family

Cultural rules

  • selection of spouse
    • exogamy/endogamy
      • incest taboos
    • individual choice / arranged marriage
      • romantic love
  • exchange
    • bride service
    • bride price
    • dowry

Cultural Rules

  • monogamy
  • polygamy
    • polyandry
    • polygyny
      • levirate – in case of spouse death, wife marries dead husband’s brother
      • sororate – in case of spouse death, husband marries dead wife’s sister

Cultural Rules

  • family structure
    • nuclear
    • extended
  • residence
    • neolocal
    • patrilocal/matrilocal
  • divorce

Marriage as adaptation

  • female husband in W. Africa
    • women’s status
  • Nayar marriage in E. India
    • land owning/warrior caste
    • matrilineal household
    • two rituals of marriage
      • tying of tali
      • Midwife fee payment

Children

  • int’l rights of children
  • domestic violence
    • cultural defense
  • war
    • child soldiers
    • civiilian injuries, death
  • slavery
    • sex trade
  • poverty
    • life chances

CST 241-04

Kristof announcement

video: Asante Market Women

Queenmothers

CST 241-04

Subsistence (making a living, producing food)

Non-Western Systems

  • foraging
    • gathering vegetables and hunting animals
    • low population density
    • nomadic
    • conflict avoidance
    • social equality & sharing
  • pastoralism
    • raising animals (privately owned animals)
    • transhumance (at least 2 places to semi-settle at different times of the year)
    • interaction with farmers
  • horticulture
    • swidden (slash & burn) farming
    • permanent villages
    • ethnobotany

Western Systems

  • agriculture
    • technology: plow, irrigation, chemicals
    • intensive lablor
    • surplus for sale
    • peasants
    • monetarization
  • industrialism
    • technology
    • urbanization
    • social stratification
    • monetarization

Theoretical approaches

  • cultural ecology
    • culture and environment (Steward)
    • technology & energy (White)
  • ecological functionalism
    • successful exploitation of environment (Harris)

CST 241-04

Human communication system

  • conventionality
  • displacement
  • productivity

language acquisition device (LAD)

  • Noam Chomsky: universal grammar

Functions of language

  • transmits cultural information
  • organizes human thinking

language structure

  • phonology – phonemes (sounds)
  • morphology – morphemes (phonemes to words)
  • syntax – words to sentences
  • morphology + syntax = grammar

lexicon

  • word list

semantics

  • word meaning

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

  • language organizes thinking, molds world view
    • kinship terms
    • color categories
    • time
    • gender

contra Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

  • diverse language but same values, beliefs
  • variation in relative importance of gender distinctions

*** discussion of Yoruba linguistics

LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY

  • dialects
    • ethnic identity
    • African-American vernacular English (“Ebonics”)
  • code switching
    • social identity

LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL CHANGE

pidgin

  • used in int’l trade

Creole

  • pidgin becomes main language

Language and history

  • proto-language

language extinction

CST 241-04

Assigned Discussion: Article #29 (Week 7?)

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
By NANDA
New:$145.00
Used:$108.75
Edition 9TH 07
Publisher: CENGAGE L
APPLYING CULTURAL
ANTHRO.:INTRO.READER
By PODOLEFSKY
New:$52.35
Used:$39.25
Edition 8TH 09
Publisher: MCG

Trobriand Cricket video (cont’d)