Category Archives: BIO 105-03

TR 8:30a-9:45a
Oelman 109
T 2:15p-4:05p
Fawcett 127

BIO 105-03

Dietary supplements
– dietary supplements are not strictly regulated by FDA
— manufacturers not required to prove safety or efficacy of supplement claims
– dietary supplements and ergogenic aids may improved performance, but can have side effects
ergogenic = a substance used to improve athletic performance

– creatine
— research data mixed regarding enhancement of performance
— improves hi-intensity, short-duration activities (like weight training) that rely on anaerobic metabolism
— supposed to increase the amt of creatine phosphate in muscle

– caffeine
— enhances athletic performance, mostly during endurance events
— stimulates CNS, breakdown of muscle glycogen, may increase fatty acid avaialbility
— improves hi-intensity, short duration activities (like weight training) that rely on anaerobic metabolism

– anabolic steroid
— anabolic effect
— testosterone-based substances that promote muscle growth and strength
— androgenic effect (testosterone-promoting)
— hormone imbalance causes undesirable side effects in both men and women and health risks

– growth hormone
— little research on efffects on athletic performance, results mixed
— reduces body fat but not muscle strength
— excess can cause acromegaly and serious health issues

– erythropoietin and blood doping
— increase oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood by increasing # of blood cells
— can increase blood viscosity, increase risk of stroke and heart of attack
– sports bars, shakes and meal replacements may provide benefits
— convenient sources of carb and protein but more expensive than whole foods
— may include extra emounts of vitamins and minerals not needed

Disease of the day: female athlete triad
– eating disorder with 3 major components
— disordered eating: harmful eating behaviors in order to lose weight or maintain a lo weight
— amenorrhea: absence of 3-6 consecutive menstrual cycles due to insufficient energy intake
— osteoporosis: resulting from amenorrhea and poor diet; increases risk for stress, hip and vertebral fractures

Bio 105 Lecture 16 Notes

I. Hunger
A. Basic info
– the physical need for food
– food insecurity: chronic inability to secure adequate amounts of nutritious food to meet needs
— in 2004, 12% of households were food insecure in USA and 4% classified as “hungry”
— worldwide, 2 billion were food insecure
— current global food production exceeds the needs of the population
B. Causes of Domestic Hunger
– often caused by poverty, illness or lack of opportunity
— ex: poverty – 12% of US population at or below poverty level ($13,200/yr for married couple or single mother with 1 child)
— ex: obesity among food insecure is common, less nutritious foods can be less expensive, higher in calories
— ex: chronically ill or disabled less likely to earn steady income and at risk for poor diet
C. Causes of Global Hunger
– often caused by inequality, political conflict, crop failure, population overgrowth
— ex: war and regional conflicts disrupt agriculture and food distribution, caused more than 35% of food emergencies between 1992-2003
— ex: insects destroy about 33% of world food supply each year
— ex: most of world population growth occurs in developing and underdeveloped countries
II. Starvation
A. Basic info
– the result of a severe/total lack of nutrients needed for the maintenance of life
– results from the inadequate intake of nutrients or the inability to metabolize or absorb nutrients
– complete starvation in adults leads to death within 8-12 weeks
— consists of approx 3 stages
— starved adults may lose as much as 50% of their normal body weight
B. Causes
– eating disorders
– intentional fasting
– coma
– stroke
– inability to obtain food (famine, child abuse, aftermath of war /disaster, lost in wilderness or desert areas)
– severe gastrointestinal disease
C. Stages
1. Stage 1
– blood glucose levels are maintained thru production of glucose from glycogen, protein & fat
– glycogen only lasts a few hours
– when glucose used up:
— fatty acids used as majority of energy for most cells
— some proteins are made into glucose for CNS
2. Stage 2
– can last for several weeks
– fat is primary energy source
– liver breaks down fatty acids into ketone bodies
– after a week, the brain starts to use ketones in addition to glucose for energy
— conserve glucose and proteins
3. Stage 3
– only occurs in prolonged starvation
– fat reserved depleted
– proteins become primary source of energy
— muscles rapidly deplete
— nonessential proteins used first
— once nonessential proteins are used up, the essential proteins are used
– eventually cell function stops = death
D. Overall Effect
– metabolic rate is decreased
– many organs begin to shrink
— villi in gut shrink = less capacity to absorb nutrition
— stomach shrinks = decreases appetite, hunger
– ability of the body to consume normal volumes of food decreases
– total body shutdown & death
E. Symptoms
– shrinkage of vital organs – heart, lungs, ovaries, testes and gradual loss of their functions
– chronic diarrhea
– anemia
– decreased ability to digest food because of lack of digestive acid production
– immune deficiency: often people die of infection first
F. Minnesota Starvation Experiment
1. Basic info
– human starvation experiment by Ancel Keys at UMinn
– during WWII
– determine how to help/re-feed Eurozone after war
– learn physiological and psychological effects of long-term starvation
2. Experimental Conditions
– 36 healthy white males, ages 22-33
— volunteers from conscientious objectors
– main objectve = characterize the physical and mental effects of starvation on healthy men
– observed under
a. Baseline
– 3200 calories/day
— 3 mos
b. Semi-starvation
– 6 mos
— diet similar to Euro hungry: potatoes, turnips, rutabagas, dark bread, macaroni
— walk 22miles/week, expend 3000 cal/day
— goal to lose at least 25% of initial weight
c. Nutritional rehabilitation
– various cal/day (minimum 2200 cal/day)
— 2 mos>
— men randomly assigned to 1 of 4 energy intake groups
— each energy level was subdivided into 2 protein levels, and each protein level into 2 vitamin levels
3. Side Effects
– decreased sex drive
– reduction in muscle mass and consequent weakness
– lowered body temp combined with extreme sensitivity to cold
– irritability and difficulty with mental concentration
– swelling from fluid under the skin
4. What was learned
– detailed bok of results: The Biology of Human Starvation
— immediate pamplhlet for aid agencies
– need protein and extra cal (~4000 cal/day) to rehab starvation
– full recovery took 2 mos – 2 years
– equation to determine calorie intake to gain/lose specific amount of weight
— “Key’s forumla”
— used today in the therapeutic treatment of nutritional disorders

Clicker Questions
When fatty acids are broken down, what energy molecule is made?
1.Glucose
2.Ketones
3.Glycogen
4.Glycerol

What eating disorder is similar to the experiences of the men in the Minnesota experiment?
1.Anorexia nervosa
2.Bulimia nervosa
3.Binge eating disorder
4.Night eating syndrome

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BIO 105-03

Bio 105 Lecture 14 Notes

I. Energy Imbalance

A. Negative Energy Imbalance
B. Positive Energy Imbalance
II. Factors that Affect Body Weight
A. Hunger and Appetite
B. Physiology
1. Physiological feedback mechanisms
a. Basic info
b. Hormones
c. Other physiological feedback mechanisms
C. Genetics
1. Basic info
2. Genetics Differences Found
D. Environment (American)
III. Weight Loss
A. Reasonable rate
B. Long-Term Weight Loss
1. Basic info
2. Diet
3. Physical Activity
4. Behavior
C. Fad Diets
1. Basic info Fad Diets
2. Sensational claims and hype
3. Low-carb Diets
D. Maintaining Weight Loss
E. Extreme Obesity
1. Basic info
2. Treatment
a. Very-low-calorie diets
b. Medication
c. Gastric bypass and gastric banding
d. Liposuction
IV. Healthy Weight Gain
V. Disordered Eating
A. Disordered eating definition
B. Eating Disorders
1. Basic info
2. Anorexia Nervosa
3. Bulimia Nervosa
4. Other Eating Disorders
a. Binge eating disorder
b. Night eating syndrome
5. Treating Disordered Eating Behaviors

Clicker Questions

When would the stomach stop producing ghrelin?
1.Shortly before a meal
2.During a meal
3.Shortly after a meal

A reasonable weight loss goal for an overweight man who weighs 240 pounds is:
1.4 lbs per month
2.6 lbs per month
3.8 lbs per month
4.10 lbs per month

When you eat higher-volume food, what hormone do you increase the amount of time it is released?
1.Insulin
2.Ghrelin
3.CCK
4.Leptin

Jason wants to lose 10 pounds of body fat by increasing his physical exercise. How many calories would he need to burn off to achieve his goal?
1.3,500
2.7,500
3.17,500
4.35,000

Mark wants to gain 5 pounds by increasing his caloric intake. How many extra calories would he need to eat to achieve his goal?
1.3,500
2.7,500
3.17,500
4.35,000

A distorted body self-image is commonly seen in what eating disorder?
1.Anorexia nervosa
2.Bulimia nervosa
3.Binge eating disorder
4.Night eating syndrome
Feedback Loops

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Bio 105 Lecture 15 Notes

I. What Is Fitness?

A. Basic Info
– good health or physical condition, primarily result of exercise and proper nutrition
– exercise is NOT the same as physical activity
– has 5 basic components
B. Fitness Components
– cardiorespiratory endurance
— ability to sustain cardiorespiratory exercise for extended time
— cardiovascular and respiratory systems must provide enough oxygen and energy to muscles
– muscle strength
— ability to produce force for brief time
– muscle endurance
— ability to exert force for a long period of time w/o fatigue
– flexibility
— range of motion around a joint
– body composition
— proportion of muscle, fat, water and other body tissues which make up body weight
C. Fitness Benefits
– fitness provides numerous benefits
— overall health & physical fitness
— reduces risk of cadiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
— improves body composition, bone health and immune system
— improves sleep and reduces stress
– over half of adults in US do not meet regular physical activity recommendations
D. Fitness Program
1. Cardiorespiratory exercise
– improves cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition
– continuous activities that use large muscle groups
— examples: high impact aerobics, stair climbing, brisk walking
– primarily aerobic because it uses oxygen
— heart rate and stroke volume increased to maximize blood flow delivery to muscles = increased cardiac output
2. Weight training
– improves muscle strength, muscle endurance, and body comp
– to increase muscle strength, low # of repetitions using heavy weights
– to increase muscle endurance – high # of repetitions using lighter weights
3. Stretching
– improves flexibility
4. FITT
a. What it stands for
Frequency / Intensity / Time / Type (see chart in book)
b. Measuring intensity
– RPE: rate of perceived exertion; measure of intensity for cardio exercise
II. Nutrient Use During Exercise
A. Basic energy use
During first few minutes of physical activity
– energy provided by anaaerobic energy production from breakdown of
— adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
— creatine phosphate
– limited amt. stored in cells
As exercise continues
– oxygen intake and aerobic energy production increases
– glucose and fatty acids broken down to yield ATP energy via cell respiration
B. Carb Use During Exercise
1. Basic info
– primary energy source during high-intensity exercise
— liver glycogen maintains normal blood glucose
— muscle glycogen supplies muscles
— blood glucose and stored glycogen lasts for about 2 hours of moderate exercise
2. Intensity effects
– lactic acid is produced at high exercise intensities and shuttled to other tissues
— used for energy during low-intensity exercise
– intensity affects how much glucose and glycogen you use
— glucose and glycogen use increases as intensity increases
– how much carb you need for exercise depends on duration of activity
C. Fat Use During Exercise
1. Basic info
– primary energy source during low-to-moderate intensity exercise
— 2 forms: fatty acids (from triglycerides) in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue
– converting fatty acids into energy is slow and requires more oxygen compared with carbohydrate
— not used very often for high-intensity
2. Intensity effects
– intensity and training affect how much fat you use
— lo-intensity exercise uses mostly fat from adipose tissue
— moderate-intensity exercise also uses fatty acids from muscle triglycerides
— well-trained muscles burn more fat than less trained muscles
— body uses less glycogen and more fat, increases endurance
3. Fat vs. carbs
– fat-burning zone: 65-73% of max heartrate
– “cardio” zone: >73% of max heartrate
– not necessary to stay in fat-burning zone to lose weight
— need to burn calories to produce overall calorie deficit
— hi-intensity exercise burns calories more quickly but can exercise longer with lower-intensity workout
D. Protein Use During Exercise
– protein is primarily needed to build and repair muscle
— muscle damage results from exercise, esp. in weight or str. training
— amino acids needed to promote muscle growth and recovery
– body can use protein for energy if needed
— prefers carb and fat as main energy sources
E. Calorie and nutrient use

F. Timing between nutrient use and exercise
– after exercise, body is in catabolic state
— catabolic = break down
— muscle and liver glycogen stores low
— muscle protein broken down
– nutrients needed to change into anabolic state necessary for optimal fitness
— anabolic = build up
1. Before exercise
– carbohydrate 15-30 min before
— gives muscles immediate energy, spares glycogen stores, helps reduce muscle damage
– consuming protein before:
— increases muscle glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis after exercise is over
– high-fat foods should be avoided before exercise
— takes longer to digest
2. During exercise
– for exercise >1hr, begin carb intake shortly after start and every 15-20 min
— glucose, sucrose, maltodextrin are best choices for quick absorption
– consuming both carb and protein is best for muscle maintenance and growth
3. After exercise
– carb: protein ratio of 3:1
— ideal to promote muscle glycogen and protein synthesis
— promotes faster recovery time
– after exercise meal, withing 2hrs
— hi-carb
— moderate protein
— lo-fat
III. Vitamins and Minerals’ Role in Fitness
A. Basic info
– vitamins and minerals play major role in metabolism for energy during exercise
— don’t themselves supply energy
– multivitamin/minerals supplements and athletic performance
— taking more than RDA will not improve performance during exercise
B. Vitamins’ Role in Fitness
– more oxygen -> more free radicals
— cellular damage caused by exercise
– antioxidants neutralize free rad.
— antioxidant vitamins E & C supplements NOT shown to improve ath. performance
– vitamin C is important for making collagen
— connective tissue can be damaged by exercise
C. Minerals’ Role in Fitness
1. Iron
– low iron levels can reduce hemoglobin (anemia)
– hemoglobin necessary in red blood cells to transport oxygen to cells
– lo hemo causes early fatigue during exercise
– female athl. more at risk for iron-deficiency anemia
– sports anemia: decreased hemo can result from strenuous training due to increased blood volume, but low Red Blood Cells
— not same as iron-deficiency anemia and is self-correcting
2. Calcium
– important to reduce risk of bone fractures
– needed in muscle contraction
– calcium is lost in sweat
– supplements not recommended unless food intake is inadequate
IV. Fluid Intake and Fitness
A. Water/basic info
– water is lost thru sweat and exhalation
– sodium and chloride are electrolytes lost in sweat
— some potassium lost too
— electrolyte imbalance can cause heat cramps, nausea, lowered blood pressure, edema
– evaporation of sweat helps cool body
B. Sports Drinks
– contain:
— 6-8% carb
— sodium & potassium
– beneficial in long endurance events
— quickly replace fluid & eletrolytes
— for events <60 min, water is sufficient to replace fluids and food to replace eletrolytes
– should be avoided as daily beverage
— damages tooth enamel
— can provide unwanted calories
C. Dehydration
– acute dehydration
— not adequately hydrated before sternuous exercise
– chronic dehydration
— not adequately hydrated over extended period of time
— fatigue, muscle sorness, poor recovery from workout, headaches, nausea, dark urine
V. Dietary Supplements

A. Basic info

B. Creatine

C. Caffeine

D. Anabolic steroids

E. Growth hormone

F. Erythropoietin and blood doping

G. Sports bars, shakes, and meal replacements

H. Disease of day: Female Athlete Triad

Clicker Questions

For moderate health benefits, it is recommended that at least __ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days.
1.20
2.30
3.60
4.90

Weight training can improve all of the following except:
1.Body composition
2.Flexibility
3.Muscle endurance
4.Muscle strength

Much of the energy production during cardio-respiratory exercise is aerobic because it uses:
1.ATP
2.Oxygen
3.Creatine
4.Lactic acid

To lose fat, you need to stay within an optimal “fat-burning zone.”
1.True
2.False

After the first 20 minutes, the main fuel your body uses during low-intensity exercise is:
1.Amino acids
2.Fat from adipose tissue
3.Fat from muscle triglycerides
4.Muscle glycogen

Taking a multivitamin/mineral supplement gives you extra direct energy.
1.True
2.False

Overhydration resulting in dangerously low levels of sodium in the blood is called:
1.Hypernatremia
2.Acute dehydration
3.Hyperkalemia
4.Hyponatremia

Which dietary supplement is likely to enhance physical performance the most?
1.Caffeine
2.Steroids
3.Growth hormone
4.Creatine

BIO 105-03

Class discussion Prompt #2 on WebCT!! Due Thursday 2/26!!!

Bio 105 Lecture 12 Notes

I. Eating
A. What Makes Eating So Enjoyable?
B. Taste
C. Aromas
II. Digestion
A. Basic Info
1. Definition
2. GI Tract
a. Composition
b. Functions
2. Mechanical and Chemical
3. Absorption of nutrients
4. Tasks
5. The Processes
B. Steps/Organs
1. Mouth
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
a. Mechanical
b. Chemical
c. Stomach emptying:
4. Small Intestine
a. Anatomy
b. Mechanical and chemical digestion
5. Large Intestine (Colon)
a. Functions
b. Anatomy
c. E. coli
C. Digestion Aids
1. Chemical
a. Enzymes
b. Hormones
gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK)
control digestive secretions, regulate enzymes
increase/decrease preistalsis
secreted by stomach, small intest., pancreas
feedback system
c. Bile
secreted by liver, stored in gall bladder
emulsifies fat in small intest.
2. Accessory Organs
not directly involved in digestion, but essential for aid
a. Mouth
teeth: mastication
tongue: mastication, swallowing
salivary glands: produce saliva
b. Liver
largest gland in the body
produces bile needed for fat digestion
metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins
stores nutrients: vits. A, D, B12, E, copper, iron, gycogen
detoxes alcohol
c. Gallbladder
concentrates and stores bile
released into GI tract when fat ingested
d. Pancreas
produces hormones: insuling & glucagon
produces sodium bicarbonate
neutralizes acidic chyme
protects enzymes in small intestine from inactivation by stomach acid
digestive enzymes for small intestine:
amyloase digests carbs
lipase digests fats
trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase digest proteins
D. Other Body Systems’ Influence
nervous system stimulates appetite
hormone ghrelin signals brain to eat when stomach empty
circulatory system
transports nutrients, oxygen, waste products thru blood
lymphatic system
distributes fat & fat-soluble nutrients thru lymp
excretory system
eliminates wastes from circulatory system via urine

III. Diseases of day
A. Digestive Disorders of Mouth and Esophagus
gingivitis & periodontal disease
swallowing problems: dysphagia
esophageal problems
heartburn (acid reflux) may be caused by weak LES
B. Digestive Disorders of Stomach
gastroenteritis
stomach flu: diarrhea, cramps, vomiting
usually caused by virus
peptic ulcers
erosion of mucus covering so acid eats at stomach lining
80% associated with Helicobacter pylori
C. Digestive Disorders of Small Intestine
malabsorption disorders
celiac disease: inability to digest gluten protein
short bowel syndrome: due to losing more than 65% of small intestine
less small intestine = less absorption of nutrients
gastroenteritis
duodenal ulcers
intestinal enzyme deficiencies
D. Digestive Disorders of Large Intestine
constipation
may be due to insufficient fiber and water intake, inactivity, stress, illness
diarrhea
need to be careful of dehydration
treatedby fluid and electrolyte replacement
special problem for children and elderly
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
alternating patterns of diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain
autoimmune?
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Crohn’s disease – autoimmune, affects entire GI wall
ulcerative colitis: ulcers in colon

Clicker Questions

The process of digestion begins in the:
1.Mouth
2.Esophagus
3.Stomach
4.Small intestine

Why does chewing food help with digestion?
1.Chewing exercises the jaw muscles
2.Chewing is a natural reflex
3.Chewing ensures slow ingestion of food
4.Chewing increases the exposed surface area of the food

Why doesn’t the stomach digest itself?
1.Enzymes don’t work on own body
2.Not enough HCl
3.Protected by mucus
4.Protected by saliva swallowed

All absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine.
1.True
2.False

Which of the following is NOT a task for the large intestine?
1.Digestion
2.Absorption
3.Elimination
4.Secretion

What substance is required to break up fat globules and emulsify fats?
1.Lipase
2.Chyme
3.Bile
4.Bolus

Which of the following is the carb-digesting enzyme produced by the pancreas?
1.Carboxypeptidase
2.Amylase
3.Insulin
4.Glucagon

Long-term constipation can lead to…
1.IBS
2.IBD
3.Diverticulitis
4.Diarrhea

~~~~~ CONTINUED ~~~~

Bio 105 Lecture 13 Notes

I. Digestion of Nutrients
A. Digesting Carbs
1. Basic info
digesting a meal of pasta (starch), milk (lactose) and cherries (sucrose & fiber)
digest carbohydrates in mouth & intest.
saliva contains amylase enzyme (-ase = enzyme)
starts breaking down amylose and amylopectin in pasta into smaller starch units and maltose
2. In GI tract
in stomach – breakdown to di- and other polysaccharides
in small intest. final breakdown to monosaccharides
monosaccharides travel in blood to liver for processing to glucose
glucose travels to blood in all cells
in large intest. soluble fiber broken down by bacteria, insoluble fiber passes thru
3. Lactose Intolerance
lactose: principal carbohydrate found in dairy products
disacch: galactose & glucose
people with a deficiency of the enzyme lactase cannot digest lastose properly
lactase found in sm. intest.
lactose maldigestion is natural part of aging
as soon as baby stops nursing, body makes less lactase
lactose intolerance
lactose maldigestion resulting in nausea, cramps, bloating, diarrhea, flatulence
symptoms due to bacteria in lg intest. digesting lactose -> release H gas
B. Digesting Fat
1. In GI tract
mouth
chewing, lingual lipase
stomach
gastric lipase: triglyceride -> diglyceride (glycerol w/2 fatty acids) and one fatty acid
small intest.
when fat arrives in sm intest, 2 chemicals released
bile acids to emulsify fat
pancreatic lipase: diglyceride -> monoglyceride (glycerol w/1 fatty acid) and 1 fatty acid
small intestine (con): monoglycerides and fatty acids
packaged w/ lecithin (emulsifier from bile)
creates MICELLES for absorption into intestinal wall cells
2. Transport to body
short-chain fatty acids enter bloodstream and travel to liver directly
long-chain faty acids in intestinal cells
reformulated into fat
need transport carriers b/c too big: chylomicrons (lipoprotein)
taken to lymph first and then to blood
in blood capillaries – lipoprotein lipase
breaks down fat to fatty acids and glycerol for direct use by cells
chylomicrons w/o fats removed -> liver for processing
C. Digesting Protein
dietary proteins are digested & absorbed in stomach & small intestine
stomach acids: d
denature protein
activate pepsin – breaks down protein into shorted polypeptides
in the sm intest poplypeptides broken down into tri- dipeptides and amino acids
amino acids enter blood and travel to liver
II. Weight Management
A. Basic Info
B. Risks
1. Being overweight
2. Being underweight
C. How Do You Know If You’re at a Healthy Weight?
1. BMI
2. Body fat amount
a. Basic Info
b. Ways to measure
3. Body fat location
D. Energy Balance
E. Energy Needs
1. BMR
a. Basic info
b. Factors That Affect BMR
2. Thermic effect of food
3. Physical activity
F. Estimated Energy Expenditure (EER)

Clicker Questions

What hormone stimulates cells to take up glucose from the blood?
Insulin
Glucagon
Glycogen
Ghrelin

How many calories per gram is digested protein worth?
4
6
8
9

George has a BMI of 32. He is considered to be:
Underweight
At a healthy weight
Overweight
Obese

Dietary carbs and protein are converted to fat and stored when energy balance is:
Zero
Neutral
Negative
Positive

For an average person, the largest portion of energy needs is determined by:
Body weight
Physical activity
BMR
Thermic effect of food

BIO105-03

105lecture9notes

105lecture10notes

105lecture11notes

~~~~

Date:
Bio 105 Lecture 11 Notes
I. Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways
A. Aerobic                                       B. Anaerobic
II. Anaerobic Pathways
A. In mitochondria – no oxygen
B. In the cytoplasm – no oxygen
Date:
C. Fermentation in Us
1. Basic info
2. Lactate and “Muscle Burn”
D. Fermentation in Yeast

  • single-celled org w/ organelles like ours, live in solution
  • yeast w/ Ox = cell resp.
  • yeast w/o Ox = alcohol fermentation
    • glycoloysis: glucose -> pyruvic acid -> ethanol + CO2
  • alcohol can build to toxic levels

III. Versatility of Cell Respiration

  • Cellular respiration can burn other kinds of molecules besides glucose
    • diverse types of carb
    • fats
    • proteins

A. Carbohydrates

  • complete breakdown of a carb -> monosaccharides
    • glucose enters glycoloysis as is
    • galactose & fructose are modified to become a moleule in the glycolysis pathway – enter there
  • ~36-38 ATP/monosaccharide
  • CO2, H2O are byproducts

B. Fat

1. Basic Info

  • even though excess glucose is stored as fat – glucose cannot be made from fatty acids
  • triglycerides are broken into 2 parts
    • glycerol made into glucose
    • fatty acids: lipolysis breaks down long carbon chains into
      • AcetylCoA – enters sitric acid cycle
      • extra NADH and FADH2 – used in electron transport system

2. The end products of fat metabolism:

  • CO2 and H2O (cell resp)
  • ENERGY! -139 ATP from a 16C small fatty acid
    • from electron transport system (cell respiration)
    • remember – each triglyceride has 3 fatty acids

3. Fats vs. Carbs Energy

  • ATP per carbon atom
    • 6 C glucose = 38/6 = 6.3 ATP
    • 16 C fatty acid = 129/16 = 8 ATP per carbon
  • this shows that fat is a better store of energy than glucose

C. Protein
1. Basic info

  • proteins broken down to amino acids
  • amino acids are broken apart
    • amino group is removed – converted to urea and excreted
    • carbon backbones can enter any of the 3 stages of cell resp

2. End products of amino acid metabolism

  • CO2 & H2O (cell resp)
  • ATP (cell resp)
  • Nitrogen (excreted @ urea)

IV. “Disease of day”
A. Fainting
1. Basic info

  • if no oxygen foe extended period of time = faint
    • after 3 min, brain cells start to die, irreversible
  • drowning is similar
    • water fills lungs, blood gets little Ox
    • no Ox reaches brain
    • faint
    • still no Ox to brain

2. Fainting and cell respiration

  • what happens if O to brain is insufficient
    • Ox final electron acceptor of electron transport system
    • ATP runs out, no NAD + regenerated – citric acid cycle stops
  • conscious brain shuts down – faint, collapse
  • blood flows to brain = more Ox
    • electron trans system and citric acid cycle resume
  • lots of ATP produced again, regain consciousness

B. Cyanide poisoning

  • cyanide destroys electron transport system’s ability to transfer electrons and create H buildup
    • NADH, FADH2 accumulates, no ATP formes
    • brain cells run out of energy, die
  • AU 1982: 7 fatal Tylenol poisonings in Chicago
    • involved Ex-Str Tylenol laced with potassium cyanide
    • still haven’t caught/convicted killer

Clicker Questions
Which of the following is NOT a stage of cell respiration?
1.Glycolysis
2.Calvin cycle
3.Citric acid cycle
4.Electron transport system

Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
1.Outside the mitochondria
2.In between the membranes of the mitochondria
3.In the matrix of the mitochondria
4.On the outer membrane of the mitochondria

Why does the citric acid cycle stop when there is no oxygen?
1.No ATP is made to keep it going
2.No oxygen to give electrons
3.No hydrogen to give electrons
4.No NAD+ to take electrons away

What provides the bubbles in beer and bread?
1.Bacteria
2.A bubbling machine
3.Grains
4.Yeast

BIO 105-03

Date:
Bio 105 Lecture 9 Notes
I. Photosynthesis Equation Summary

II. Process 1: Light-DEPENDENT Reactions
A. Basic Info

  • absolutely requires light to occur
  • occurs in grana membrane of chloroplast
  • part 1: light energy excites electrons in chlorophyll
    • electrons come from breaking apart h2o
      • frees hydrogens for making glucose
      • releases oxygen gas as waste
    • part 2: excited electrons’ energy used to make ATP and NADPH

B. Chlorophyll and Photosystems
1. Basic Info

  • chlorophyll arranged in groups by type of light absorbed
  • groups = photosystems
    • photosystems have multiple pigments that act as antennae to collect light and transmit it to the chlorophyll
    • 2 types that sit in grana modules

2. Exciting Electrons in Chlorophyll

  • electrons get energy boost from sunlight and jump to higher energy level
  • electrons can’t stay at that leevel w/o added energy so the fall back to original level (1 millionth of a second)
  • process is how glow sticks work
    • the chemical reaction boosts electrons to higher energy level
    • as the electrons fall back to normal level they give off light energy

3. First Photosystem (Water-Splitting Photosystem)

  • in first ps, electorn doesn’t fall back to chlorophyll
    • electron caught by another molecule: primary electron receptor
    • new electrons for chlorophyll come from splitting water
      • H goes to stroma
      • O is waste

4. Photosystem to Electron Acceptors

  • first photosystem sends electrons to the 2d photosystem via electron acceptors
  • after primary electron acceptor there are 3 electron acceptors in the grana membrane
    • as the electron and its energy is passed to each acceptor, the acceptor puts a H ion inside the grana
    • each handoff loses some of the electron’s energy

5. First Photosystem to Second Photosystem

  • the last electron acceptor transfers its electron and energy to the 2d photosystem
    • each time the electron is passed it loses a little energy
  • the 2d photosystem needs to be stimulated with light energy again to excite the electron high enough to be caught and useful
  • the electron then goes to another primary electron acceptor

6. Photosystem to NADPH

  • after the primary electron acceptor
    • the electron and a Hydrogen are transferred to NADP
    • NADP becomes NADPH

7. Hydrogens to ATP

  • each of the electron acceptors use the energy passing throu to put a Hydrogen ion into the grana
  • there is a buildup of H ions
  • the buildup can be used as energy to make ATP
    • ATP synthase is enzyme
    • hydrogens go from high concentration in grana to low concentration in stroma
      • works similar to waterfalls making electricity

B. Process 2: Light-INDEPENDENT Reactions
1. Basic Info

  • does NOT require light to occur, DOES require the products from the light dependent reactions
  • occurs in stroma or chloroplast
  • chloroplast uses energy stored in ATP and electrons in NADPH
    • get CO2 from air
    • forms new bonds between carbons and oxygen from carbon dioxide and hydrogens from water
    • process is called CALVIN CYCLE
    • product is actually G3P, can be used to make glucose or other products

C. Photosynthesis Summary
1. Basic summary of molecule

  • light provides energy to convert
    • ADP to ATP
    • NADP+ to NADPH
  • water is broken down and O released
  • ATP, NADPH and CO2 are then used in the light independent reactions to make G3P
  • G3P is used to make glucose

2. Overall Energy Transfer

  • energy from sun to electrons
  • energy from electrons to ATP and NADPH
  • energy from ATP and NADPH to glucose bonds
  • energy from glucose bonds used for organisms
  • all energy ultimately comes from sunlight

Clicker Questions
In which organelle does photosynthesis occur?
1.Cell wall
2.Chloroplast
3.Chlorophyll
4.Mitochondria
What would be an example of one of the antenna pigments?
1.Retinoid
2.ATP
3.NADPH
4.Beta-carotene
How many times must the Calvin cycle turn for the plant to be able to produce a single
molecule of glucose?
1.1
2.3
3.4
4.6

Chlorophyll
Light

BIO 105-03

*** Laptop battery FAIL, notes downloaded only ***

105lecture8notes

BIO 105-03

Bio 105 Lecture 7 Notes

I. Water

A. Basic Info
B. Functions
C. Water balance

1. How balance
2. Out of balance

  • Thirst mechanism signals dehydration: blood volume decreases, sodium concentration increases in blood
  • Brain triggers thirst mechanism and secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) to reduce urine output
  • fluid inside cells moves into blood by osmosis
  • dry mouth due to increased electrolyte concetration in blood
  • other ways to tell if you are dehydrated:
  • cornerstone method, measure body weight before and after high physical activity or labor
  • urine color: urine is more concentrated when dehydrated and darker in color
  • too much water can cause hyponatremia (sodium blood level too low)
  • during endurance athletic events or strenuous military training

a. Too much
b. Too little

D. Needs

  • daily water needs vary depending on physical activity, environmental factors, diet
  • recommendations based on reported total water intake of healthy Americans
  • men 16 C/day (13 C of beverage)
  • women 12 C/day, (9 C bev)

II. Macrominerals

  • inorganic elements found on the periodic table and needed in relatively small amounts
  • minerals have varying bioavailability
  • some minerals compete for absorption: too much of one can decrease absorption of another (ex: excess zinc can reduce copper absorption)
  • some substances bind materials, making them unavailable for absorption (ex: oxalates in spinach bind calcium)

A. Sodium

1. Basic info
2. Functions

  • sodium is an electrolyte (charged ion) in blood and in the fluid surrounding cells
  • 90% of sodium consumed is in form of NaCl
  • functions: chieff role is regulation of fluid balance
  • also transports substances such as amino acids across cell membranes
  • sodium level is maintained by kidnets reducing or increasing sodium excretion as needed
  • smaller amounts lost in stool and sweat
  • food sources: about 77% of sodium consumed by Americans is from processed foods (only 5% added during cooking, 6% added at table, 12% natural food content

3. Too much
4. Too little

  • upper limit is set for adults to reduce the risk of hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • cut back on processed foods and salt added to foods to lower sodium intake
  • sodium deficiency is rare

5. Hypertension

a. Basic info

  • blood pressure is a measure of force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries
  • expressed as systolic (when heart beats) over diastolic (at rest)
  • 120/80mm Hg = normal
  • systolic > 129 or diastolic >80 = prehypertension

b. Cause and effects

  • increase in blood volume or a narrowing of the blood vessels
  • some of the risk of developing hypertension is inherited
  • constant high pressure of blood throu arteries causes damage over time
  • contributes to atherosclerosis; heart enlarges, weakens
  • damages arteries leading to brain, kidneys, legs, increasing risk of stroke, kidney failure, partial amputation of leg

c. Control

  • is a silent killer – no symptoms, have BP checcked regularly
  • mineral intake can affect the risk of hypertension
  • diets high in salt may increase blood pressure
  • diets high in potassium calcium and magnesium

B. Potassium

1. Functions

  • fluid balance of electrolyte between cells
  • blood buffer, helps keep blood pH and acid-base balance correct
  • muscle contraction and nerve impulse conduction
  • can help lower HBP
  • aids in bone health, increase bone density
  • reduces kidney stones by helping to excrete citrate

2. Too much
3. Too little

  • too much from supplements or salt substitutes can cause hyperkalemia in some individuals
  • can cause irregular heartbeat, damage to heart,
  • too little causes hypokalemia
  • muscle weakness, cramps, irrregular heartbeat & paralysis
  • can occur in excessive vomiting and or diarrhea, in anorexia and/or bulimia eating disorders

C. Calcium

1. Basic info

  • most abundant mineral in the body (99% in bones & teeth)

2. Functions

  • helps build strong bones & teeth
  • plays a role in muscles contraction and nerve signaling
  • may help lower HBP
  • may fight colon cancer
  • may reduce risk of kidney stone
  • may reduce obesity risk

3. Too much or too little

  • too much calcium leads to hypercalcemia (impaired kidneys, calcium deposits in body
  • too little can lead to less dense, weakened, brittle bones and increased risk for osteoporosis

4. Osteoporosis

  • bones are living tissue, constantly changing
  • peak bone mass occurs in early adulthood (20’s)
  • slowly more bone is lost than added
  • as bones lose mass, become more porous and prone to fractures, leading to osteoporosis

D. Phosphorous

1. Basic info

  • second most abundant mineral in body
  • 85% in bones, rest in cells and fluids outside cells, including blood

2. Functions

  • needed for bones & teeth
  • important component of cell membranes
  • needed for energy metabolism and stores
  • acts as a blood buffer
  • part of DNA/RNA

3. Too much
4. Too little

  • upper limit to prevent hyperphosophatemia, which can lead to calcification/hardening of tissues
  • too little can result in muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, confusion, death
  • would need to be in state of near starvation to experience deficiency

E. Magnesium

1. Basic info

  • 4th most abundant mineral in body
  • about half in bones, most of rest in cells

2. Functions

  • helps >300 enzymes, including energy metacolism
  • used in synthesis of protein
  • helps muscles and nerves function properly
  • maintains healthy bones and regular heartbeat
  • may help lower high blood pressure and reduce risk of type 2 diabetes

3. Too much
4. Too little

  • many Americans fall short of daily needs (70-80% met)
  • UL from supplements (not foods) is set to avoid diarrhea
  • deficiencies are rare but diuretics and some antibiotics con inhibit absorption

F. Chloride

1. Basic info

  • part of HCl in the stomach

2. Functions

  • Na & Cl are major electrolytes outside of cells and in blood to help maintain fluid balance
  • acts as buffer to keep blood at normal pH
  • salt is main source

3.. Too much/too little

  • upper limit matches Na UL
  • deficiencies rare

G. Sulfur

1. Basic info

  • component of other compounds in body, including some B vitamins

2. Functions

  • helps give some proteins 3D shape
  • as part of amino acids methionine and cysteine
  • sulfites used as food preservative to prevent spoilage and discoloration

3.. Too much/too little

  • no known toxicity or deficiency symptoms

III. Trace Minerals

  • trace minerals (microminerals) are needed in small amounts μg/day

A. Iron

1. Basic info

  • heme iron
  • animal sources
  • part of hemoglobin and myoglobin
  • easily absorbed
  • non-heme iron
  • in plant foods
  • not as easily absorbed, due to phytates and other substances
  • body only absorbs 10-15% or iron consumed
  • absorption increases if body stores are low
  • iron not excreted in urine or stool, and once absorbed, very little leaves body (95% recycled and reused)

2. Functions

  • hemoglobin in red blood cells uses iron to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide waste
  • myoglobin transports and stores oxygen in muscle cells
  • helps enzymes that make neurotransmitters

3. Too much
4. Too little

  • too much iron can cause contipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • iron overload can damage heart, kidneys, liver, nervous system
  • leading cause of accidental poisoning in shildren
  • hemochromatosis, genetic disorder, can cause iron overload
  • deficiency is most common nutritional disorder in world
  • iron-deficiency anemia occurs when iron stores depleted and hemoglobin levels decrease

B. Zinc

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much
4. Too little

C. Chronium

1. Functions
2. Too much/too little

D. Flouride

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much/too little

E. Iodine

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much
4. Too little

Clicker Questions

Approximately, how many days can you live without water?
1
3
5
7

Is It possible to die from drinking too much water?
Yes
No

How many minerals are found in your body?
6
15
21
32

What vitamin regulates calcium and phosphorous?
A
D
E
K

What part of the cell membrane contains phosphorous?
Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Proteins
Two of the above
All of the above

If you are suffering from anemia, your doctor may prescribe supplements of this trace mineral…
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Chromium

Which trace mineral is important for your dental health?
Iodine
Magnesium
Manganese
Flouride

BIO 105-03

Bio 105 Lecture 6 Notes

I. What are vitamins?

A. Basic Info
B. Types

1. Fat-soluble
2. Water-soluble

C. Stability

II. Fat-soluble vitamins

A. Basic Info

B. Vitamin A

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much
4. Too little

C. Vitamin D

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Daily needs
4. Too much
5. Too little

D. Vitamin E

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much
4. Too little

E. Vitamin K

1. Basic info
2. Functions
3. Too much
4. Too little

III. Water-soluble vitamins

A. Basic Info

B. B Vitamins

1. Thiamin (B1)

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

2. Riboflavin (B2)

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

3. Niacin (B3)

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

4. Vitamin B6

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

5. Folate

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

6. Vitamin B12

a. Basic info

b. Functions

c. Digestion/absorption
c. Too much/too little

7. Pantothenic Acid and Biotin

a. Basic info
b. Functions
c. Too much/too little

C. Vitamin C

1. Basic info
2.. Functions
3. Too much/too little
4. Colds

Clicker Questions

How many different types of vitamins are there?
13
23
33
53

When you are on a low-fat diet, which vitamin do you need to be aware of your intake?
A
B
C

Which of the following is a provitamin that can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Rhodopsin
Iodopsin
Retinol
Beta-carotene

An excellent source of vitamin E is:
Almonds
Bananas
Pork
Enriched white rice

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?
A
C
D
K

Enzymes come from what type of nutrient?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins

Pellagra is due to a deficiency of:
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Riboflavin
Thiamin

Does vitamin C cure the common cold?
Yes
No

BIO 105-03

Bio 105 Lecture 5 Notes

A. Degrading and Synthesizing Proteins
1. Amino Acid Sources in Body
2. Amino Acid Uses

B. DNA Directs Synthesis of New Proteins – Process

1. Players: DNA, genes, mRNA, ribosomes
2. Gene Mutations Affect Final Protein

C. Disease of the Day: Phenylketonuria (PKU)
1. Info

* rare genetic disorder (1 in 15k births)

* missing enzyme that breaks down the amino acid phenylalanine

** excess phenylalanine is converted to another compound

** this compound can build up, then released in urine, sweat (“musty” odor)

* left untreated, this condition can cause problems with brain development, leading to progressive mental retardation and seizures

** damage done is irreversible so early detection is crucial

** part of standard genetic testing for newborn babies

* one of the few genetic diseases that can be dontrolled by diet

* treatment

** a diet low in phenylalanine and high in tyrosine

*** at least thru age 18

*** better through life

* looking at drugs that remove excess phenlyalanine; gene therapy to replace missing enzyme

* there is no cure

2. Symptoms

3. Treatment

D. Protein Quality

varies among food sources; quality depends on digestibility and amino acid profile

1. Digestibility – how easily your body can access and break down protein

* animal sources: 90-99% digestible

* plant sources: 70-90% digestible (protected by undigestible cell wall)

2. Amino Acid Profile

* you need all amino acids required in a protein for it to be made

** the amino acids present in a food are the amino acid profile

a. Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids along with the nonessential ones

** ex: animal proteins, soy protein (from plant)

b. Incomplete proteins are low in one or more essential amino acids

* the limiting amino acid is the essential amino acid in shortest supply in the incomplete protein

* ex: plant proteins, gelatin (from animals – is missing tryptophan)

c. Complementing incomplete proteins

* plant proteins “upgraded” to complete proteins by:

** consuming mondest amounts of soy or animal protein

** being complemented with other plant proteins which provide enough of the limiting amino acid

** ex:

*** grains have lysine and isoleucine, but little methionine or tryptophan

*** legumes have methionine and tryptophan, but little lysine or isoleucine

E. Nitrogen Balance and Imbalance

1. Nitrogen Balance

* the amount of protein consumed = amount of protein used (nitrogen excreted)

2. Nitrogen Imbalances

a. Positive Nitrogen Balance: more nitrogen is retained for protein synthesis than is excreted

** seen during periods of deveolpment and growth

** ex: infants, children, pregnant women

b. Negative Nitrogen Balance: more nitrogen is excreted than consumed (body proteins broken down)

* seeen when body under large physical stress

* ex: starvation, serious injury, illness

F. Protein in the Diet

* according to Lemon (1995) each day

** sedentary adults need 0.8 g/kg (USRDA)

** strength athletes need ~ 1.4-1.8 g/kg

** endurance athletes need ~1.2-1.4 g/kg

* excess protein does NOT build muscle bulk, strength exercise does

** excess amino acids are stored as fat — NOT made into muscle unless body needs it

1. Athletes

2. Vegetarians

* variety of plant foods — need to make sure to complement incomplete proteins

* protein-rich meat alternatives:

** soy

** dried beans and other legumes

** nuts

** eggs, dairy (lacto-ovo-vegetarians)

3. Too Much Protein in the Diet

* may increase risk of heart disease, kidney stones, calcuium loss from bones

** by products of protein breakdown leads to above

* can displace other nutrient- and fiber-rich foods associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases

** ex: whole grains, fruits, vegetables

** missing fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc

** often animal protein is associated with high fat as well

4. Too Little Protein in the Diet

* low-protein diets associated with loss of bone mass

* inadequate calories and protein

* more common in children, because they are growing

* factors: poverty, poor food quality, insufficient food, unsanitary living conditions, ignorance, stopping lactation (nursing) too early

a. PEM: Kwashiorkor

* severe deficiency of dietary protein

** edema (swelling), muscle loss, skin rashes, hair changes, water and eletrolyte imbalances

** seen in children weaned to low-protein cereals

b. PEM: Marasmus

* severe deficiency of calories

** starvation

** signs: emaciation, lack of growth, loss of fat stores

* Marasmic Kwashiorkor: worst of both

End of material for Exam 1!
Exam 1 on Thursday
Begin at 8:30 am sharp
50 multiple choice questions – mix of recall and application type questions
All bookbags, purses, books, CELL PHONES ON SILENT OR OFF, etc. will be put in front of classroom
Will only need pen or pencil for scantron at your seat
Sit every other seat; there will be different forms of exam
Extra SI session?

Clicker Questions

The basic building blocks of proteins are:
Peptides
Saccharides
Fatty acids
Amino acids

How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
9
11
20
50

Alteration of the 3-dimensional shape of a protein by heat or acid is called:
Denaturation
Destabilization
Emulsification
Solidification

Which of the following sugar substitutes should PKU patients avoid?
Saccharin
Aspartame
Neotame
Sucralose

Will you add more muscle by eating more protein?
Yes
No

BIO 105-03

*** POOR ROADS, DID NOT ATTEND, DOWNLOAD ONLY ***

Bio 105 Lecture 4 Notes

A. Cholesterol
1. Cholesterol Levels
B. Lipoproteins
1.Types of Lipoproteins
a.Chylomicrons
b. Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
c.Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): “bad” cholesterol
d.High-density lipoproteins (HDL): “good” cholesterol
C. Disease of Day:  Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD)
D. Proteins
1. Protein Functions
2. Amino Acids
a. Structure
b. Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
3. Building Proteins from Amino Acids
4. Denaturation

Clicker Questions

The major dietary component that raises LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels is:
Dietary cholesterol
Monounsaturated fats
Omega-3 fatty acids
Saturated fats

It is recommended that at least _____ % of daily calories should be consumed in the form of protein.
5
10
15
25

How many calories are in each gram of protein?
3
4
7
9