PLS 451-01

Colonialism

  • informal empire
  • “legitimate trade:
  • scramble for AFR
    • Conference of Berlin 1884-85
    • who & where
    • partition
  • borders
  • multinational states
  • stateless nations

pacification

  • divide and conquer
    • collaborators
      • warrant chiefs – foreign-selected indigenous political leaders with little to no legitimacy
    • resistance (civilizations of the cities, with armies)
      • Menelik (Ethiopia), Samouri Toure (1880’s-90’s)
      • weapons of the weak (passive-aggression on a societal scale)
    • treaties
      • debt
      • “company store” type of exploitation
    • punitive expeditions (1904, Herero)
      • Germans in Namibia
      • General von Trotha
      • basically first genocide of 20th cent.
        • 80% of population killed

Foreign Occupation

  • taxation
    • failure to pay put you into…
  • forced labor, which built….
  • infrastructure designed for export only (benefits colonizer, not indigenous)
  • settlers
    • mainly large white settler populations
    • SA, ZM, RW etc
    • placed generally away from mosquito concentrations (malaria avoidance strategy)

administration

  • direct (FR) v. indirect (UK) rule
  • native authorities
    • warrant chiefs
    • comprador

political legacies

  • authoritarianism
    • centralized power
    • no political/civil rights
    • based on legitimacy? no, based on force
    • repression
      • Leopold II (Congo Free States/Belgians)
        • rubber plantations

Cultural Imperialism

  • white man’s burden
    • French: assimilatioist status
      • evolue, association, sujet
      • “evolved” shifted to “associate,” then “subject” quickly
    • British: color bar
  • missionaries
    • health care

education almost wholly foreign:

  • curriculum
  • identity
  • instills submissiveness
  • convince those subjugated of their own “inferiority”
    • Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth

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