ATH 352-01

affiliative/agonistic behavior

agonistic = “ritualized,” rarely causes actual harm

agonism: display

  • dominance
  • chimp rain dance

agonism: threats

  • territoriality
  • defense
  • dominance
  • behaviors:
    • piloerection
    • bared canines
    • stare
    • eyelid flash
    • stiff legs
    • lunge-approach
    • mount
    • submission
      • present
      • scream
      • crouch
      • retreat
      • solicit touch

agonism: aggression

  • warfare
  • infanticide
  • cannibalism
  • attacks
  • goal = physical harm
  • rare

Social life is compromise

  • dominance = precarious equilibrium
    • conflict
      • antagonism, priority of access
    • cohesion
      • alliances, reconciliation
    • fight interference
    • side-directed behavior
      • appeal-threat

status and stress

  • dominance: benefits
    • grooming
    • feeding
    • mating
  • subordinate: stress
    • dominant animal also stressed
  • Robert Sapolsky
    • cortisol: stress hormone

sociality index and fertility

  • baboon female sociality
    • grooming, being groomed, proximity (SI)
    • sociality enhances infant survival

primate encephalization

  • neocortex
  • visual cortex
  • emotional signals
  • social complexity

Monkeys: the most successful primates

  • more species of monkey than ape
  • more widely distributed

neotropical (NW) monkeys

  • more than 50 species
  • platyrrhines
    • callithricids – small, coopoerative breeding
      • common marmoset food sharing w/ unrelated individuals
    • cebids – larger, prehensile tails
  • parallel evolution with OW monkeys
  • capuchin
    • tool use, hunting, large brain
    • self-recognition (mirror test)

OW monkeys

  • about 90 species
  • catarrhines
    • colbines – leaf eaters, forest dwellers
    • cercopithecids – cheek pouches, forest and savvanah
      • macaques – most widely distributed (Asia)
      • baboons – largest (Africa)

catarrhine digestive tracts

  • fruit eaters
    • large incisors
    • low, round cusps
    • simple, acid stomach
    • long small intesting
  • leaf eaters
    • small incisors
    • sharp molar crests
    • complex stomach
    • alkaline forestomach
    • cellulolytic bacteria
    • enlarged colon

guenon diversity

  • recent evolutionary radiation
  • cercopithecus species (& others)
    • number of species unknown
    • most colorful OW monkeys
    • polyspecific associations
  • hybridization common

classic baboon model

  • terrestrialism
    • complex social organization & communication
      • large brain, culture
  • male dominance hierarchy – classic
    • defense, aggression, fertility
    • alliances necessary
  • female core – revision
    • social stability
    • female dominance hierarchy
    • female choice
    • older females respected by leaders
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