ATH 352-01

DNA analysis

  • DNA hybridization
    • 98-99% genetic similarity
  • DNA sequencing
    • comparison of nucleotides
  • CMP-Sialic acid enzyme gene
  • FOXP2 gene
  • AMY1 – salivary amylase (starch digestion)
  • HAR1 – human accelerated region (118 bases)
    • regulatory gene
    • human cortex devel.
      • language

Molecular Clock [insert diagram]

Disease-related genes

*** HANDOUT: Primate Comparative Anatomy ***

Locomotion: VCL

  • Vertical Clinging/Leaping
    • prosimians
    • intermembral index < 1
      • longer legs than arms

Locomotion: Quadripedalism

  • terrestrial
    • OW Monkeys
    • ischial callosities
      • hairless calluses on rump
  • arboreal
    • NW monkeys
    • prehensile tail (common but not universal)
    • intermembral index = 1
      • arms & legs equal length

Locomotion: knucklewalking & brachiation

  • apes
    • chimps & bonobos
    • gorillas
    • orangs
    • gibbons
    • intermembral index > 1
      • arms longer than legs

Locomotion: Pelvis

  • innominate
    • ischium
    • ilium
    • pubis

Locomotion: lower limb

  • valgus knee
    • full extension
  • great toe adduction
  • long legs

Locomotion: spine

  • spine
    • lumbar curve

upper limb: human v. gorilla

  • long thumb
  • straight hand bones
  • short arm

skull:posture

  • nuchal crest
  • foramen magnum
  • spinal cord

skull: jaws

  • mandible & maxilla
    • orthognathous (straight jaw)
    • prognathous (protruding jaw)
  • mandible
    • dental arcade
      • parabolic (Hum)
      • parallel (Ape)
    • chin & simian shelf

skull: bony crests

  • supraorbital crest
  • saggital crest

skull: cranial capacity

  • ape: 350-400cc
  • human 1350cc

dentition: heterodonty

  • dental formulae
    • ancestral mammal
    • NW monkey (2-1-3-2 or -3)
    • OW monkey (2-1-2-3)
      • ape, human
  • incisors
  • canines
  • premolars
  • molars

dentition: cusp patterns

  • molar cusps & grooves
    • bilophodont
    • Y5 (ape & human only)

dentition: dental patterns

  • canine
    • size
    • diastema
    • C/P honing complex
  • premolar
    • bicuspid
    • sectorial

Speech & language

  • association cortex
  • Broca’s area
  • Wernicke’s area
  • Arcuate fasciculus
  • basicranial flexure

sexual dimorphism

  • extreme
    • orang, gorilla
    • baboon
  • intermediate
    • chimp
    • bonobo
    • human
  • slight
    • gibbon
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