ATH 300-01

*** HANDOUT: Projectile points ***

  • stone tips of darts, spears, arrows
  • multiple uses
  • microwear/experimental studies
  • shaft + point = projectile
  • modifying basal end permits hafting to shaft
    • notching
    • fluting
  • styles persisted for hundreds of years
    • confirmed by radiocarbon testing
  • environmental context
    • adaptive design for local fauna
  • social context
    • traditions of manufacture
    • some types may have represented status
    • some designed/used as war weapons
  • Noel Justice: best ref for local (OH) points ID
  • resharpening/reshaping common
  • basal portion of point is best part for diagnostics/dating
  • tip fairly useless for dates/diag
  • earliest points lanceolate
    • long
    • hafting

CLOVIS POINT

  • occurs all over N. America
    • only excluded by ice cover
    • 2-10″ length
    • fluted from base, bifacial
    • fluting appx. .33 – .5 of blade
    • 9-10k BCE
      • some in SW date to 7k BCE

FOLSOM POINT

  • high plains N. America
  • apex of fluting tech
    • fluting extends nearly entire length of point
  • 8-9K BCE

THEBES POINT

  • pronounced side notches
  • beveling from resharpening
  • 6k-8k BCE

KIRK CN (corner-notched)

  • E USA
  • large triangular blade
  • corner notched
  • 69oo-7900 BCE

KIRK STEMMED

  • E USA
  • long blade
  • sometimes thick, or serrated
  • expanding stem
  • base is straight/slightly concave
  • 6k-6900 BCE

MACCORKLE STEMMED

  • E USA/ midwest
  • large blade
  • basal notching / bifurcated base
  • lg. basal ears
  • 6500-7k BCE

BIG SANDY

  • mid-south, MS riv. valley
  • side-notched
  • long, narrow triangle
  • bevels.serrates on resharp
  • shallow side notch
  • notch width maybe > notch depth
  • 6k-8k BCE

LECROY

  • 5800-6500 BCE
  • bifurcated base
  • bases very deeply notched
    • star-shaped
  • bases may be rounded from resharp
  • midwest into PA, part of mid-south

KANAWHA STEMMED

  • 5800-6200 BCE
  • small triang. blade
  • shallow base
  • stem small, expending, rounded corners
  • blade straight to incurvate

BREWERTON

  • midwest to new eng.
  • s. to OH valley
  • corner notched
    • broad, thick, excurvate blade
    • wide shoulders
    • 1700-3k BCE
  • side notched
    • formerly separate type
    • now recognized as resharps
  • ear notched
    • thick blade
    • weak side notching
    • triangular blade
    • ears project beyond blade edge

MCWHINNEY HEAVY STEMMED

  • mainly tri-state area
  • 1k BCE-4k BCE
  • tend to retain a lot of cortex
  • made from pebbles/cobbles
  • medial ridge

TRIMBLE SIDE NOTCHED / MEROM EXPANDING STEMMED

  • often viewed as same type
  • very small forms
  • 1k-1600 BCE
  • mid-low OH valley
  • possible blowgun dart point?

ADENA STEMMED

  • wide E. US, mainly OH valley not mid-ATL coast
  • base ovate
  • 300-800 BCE

ROBBINS

  • broader blade than Adena
  • straight stem
  • excurvate blade
  • very pronounced shoulders
  • 500 BCE – 200 CE
  • mid-upper OH valley & adjacent

SNYDERS

  • central US
  • broad-bladed
  • corner notched
  • 100 BCE – 200 CE
  • Hopewell diagnostic

LOWE CLUSTER

  • side notched
  • expanding stemmed
  • long triang. blades
  • 300 CE – 700 CE
    • Chesser Notched
    • Steuben Expanding Stemmed
    • Baker’s Creek
    • Jack’s Reef
      • very thin
      • wide blade
      • triang
      • straight exc. edge
      • straight base
      • deep corner notches
      • midwest, lower N.Eng to TN
      • 500 CE – 1k/1200 CE

MADISON POINT

  • much of E. US
  • true arrow points
  • isoc. triang
  • base straight to slightly excurvate
  • 800 CE – 1600 CE
  • later superseded by metal

FT ANCIENT

  • OH valley
  • long slender isoc. tri
  • straight base
  • deep serrated sides
  • 1k CE – 1500 CE and later
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