ATH 352-01

The primate fossil record

  • chorororapithecus dentition (toothrows, lower jaw)
    • possible gorilla precursor
  • animal something like a tree shrew (which is not primate)
    • visual predation
      • carpolestes, 56MYA
      • oldest true primate in fossil record

anthropoid evolution

  • eosimias
    • oldest anthropoid (45MYA, China)
  • Aegyptopithecus

Miocene Hominoids

  • proconsul

oldest hominoid

  • Morotopithecus bishopi
    • Uganda E AFR
    • 20.6MYA
    • 35-40kg
    • craniodental remains
      • prognathism
      • large I, C
    • vertebrae
      • limited lower back mobility
      • suspensory locomotion
  • equatorius africanus
    • large AFR hominoid
    • 15mya, Kenya
    • fragmentary sekeltons
      • mandibular & maxillary parts, teeth
      • arm bones, scapula, clavicle, vertebra
    • derived features
      • robust clavicle, etc
    • common ancestor
      • chimp/gorilla/human clade

Miocene

  • Gondwanaland breakup via continental drift
    • 175MYA, Gondwanaland intact
    • 50MYA modern continents distinct but not in modern configuration
  • Sivapithecus

European Miocene hominoids

  • Pierolapithecus
  • Dryopithecus
  • Oreopithecus

Gigantopithecus

  • Asian hominoid
    • China, India
    • late Miocene-Pleistocene
    • 3M tall, half-ton weight
    • 3 mandibles, 1000 teeth
      • “dragon’s teeth”

Late Miocene

  • Hominoid extinctions
  • monkey adaptive radiation
  • first hominins
    • Chimp fossil teeth, Kenya 545KYA
    • chimp artifacts, Cote D’Ivoire 4300BP

55MYA-5MYA: Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene

Most recent common ancestor: chimp/human split

theory in Primatology

  • sociecology
    • environment -> social behavior
    • competetive exclusion principle
      • sympathy, allopatry
    • Wrangham Dietary hypothesis
  • sociobiology
    • biology (genes) -> social behavior
    • kin selection & reciprocal altruism
    • reproductive strategies (malel infanticide)
    • grandmother hypothesis

~~~

Molecular Anthropology: genes & primate evolution

  • ~25MYA split from other primates v. ~5MYA split

molecular studies

  • immunology: proteins
    • hemoglobin
  • amino acid sequencing
    • beta hemoglobin
  • DNA analysis
    • hybridization
    • sequencing
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