ATH 300-01

*** SYLLABUS ***

  • Paleo-Indian period 10,000-8000 BCE
    • end of Pleistocene & immediately after
    • successors to first settlers
    • hunter-gatherers
      • Foraging v. Collecting models
      • low population sizes under either model
      • depends on productivity of local environment
      • C: seasonally-available food resources
      • C: favors storage tech
    • residential camps, killsites, ceremonial sites predominate period
    • megafauna hunting
    • toolkits dominated by points & blades (Clovis pt: diagnostic)
  • Archaic
    • Early Archaic 8000-6000 BCE
      • environmental change due to glacial melt
      • replacement of evergreens by deciduous
      • hunting of abundant deer, megafauna extinct by this time
      • toolkit still dominated by lithic, lanceate but different hafting from Clovis
    • Middle Archaic 6000-4000 BCE
      • warmer & drier (Atlantic Climatic Period)
      • more deciduous expansion, evergreen depletion
      • human exploitation becomes more intensified (rivers, coasts)
      • plant processing implements
      • nut-bearing trees become more important
      • ~5000 BCE, first evidence of parts of EAC
      • lithics: hafted spears & knives
      • few sites
    • Late Archaic 4000-500 BCE
      • cultivated plants as dietary adjuncts now common
      • squash & gourds appear with parts of EAC
      • middens begin to appear
      • storage/dwelling sites (postholes, etc)
      • heavy containers (stone, later pottery)
      • pottery appears ~2500BCE
      • beginnings of mound-building (NE, deep S)
      • long-distance trade intensifies
      • population grows, creating more sites
      • toolkit: smaller points with stems
  • Woodland
    • Early Woodland 500-100 BCE
      • Adena Culture – southern OH valley
      • greater residential stability, still seasonally mobile
      • food production fully developed EAC supplements H&G
      • dedicated religious & mortuary sites
        • structures, earthworks, enclosures, mounded tombs
      • lithics, pottery more common
    • Middle Woodland 100 BCE – 400 CE
      • Hopewell Culture
      • large family bands in OH, villages in IL
      • increased regional interaction & trade
    • Late Woodland 400 CE – 1000 CE
      • true villages
      • permanent structures
      • bow & arrows, projectiles reduced to projectile points
      • maize introduced in quantity as food
      • most important food source
  • Late Prehistoric period 1000 CE – 1650 CE
    • Ft. Ancient Culture
      • agricultural subsistence dominant, takes precedence over H&G
      • Maize dominant crop
      • ~1200 CE beans introduced
      • growing populations
      • dental cavities appear due to sugars in corn
      • villages enclosed by stockades
      • raiding, warfare indicated by structures, injuries
      • ceramics everywhere
      • mainly egalitarian society in OH
      • more status differences in other areas (Mississippian)
      • mounds, enclosures etc drops off
      • MS’n: flat-topped mounds, state-like political organization
      • evidence of some contacts w/ Europeans, direct or otherwise
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