- Philosophical Beliefs
- What is the “ essential” nature of political life? Is the political universe essentially one of harmony or conflict? What is the fundamental character of one’s political opponents?
- What are the prospects for the eventual realization of one’s fundamental political values and aspirations? Can one be optimistic, or must one be pessimistic on this score?
- Is the political future predictable? In what sense and to what extent?
- How much control or mastery can one have over historical development? What is one’s role in moving and shaping history in the desired direction?
- What is the role of “ chance” in human affairs?
- Instrumental Beliefs
- What is the best approach for selecting goals or objectives for political action?
- How are the goals of action pursued most effectively?
- How are the risks of political action calculated, controlled, and accepted?
- What is the best “ timing” of action to advance one’s interests?
- What is the utility and role of different means for advancing one’s interests?