yesterday’s presentation: humanitarian norms
does westphalian system promote or suppress freedoms?
class: critiques of Westphalian system
- CT attempts to ID sources of domination, etc.
- seeks to promote progressive alternatives conducive to global freedom & justice
- acid rain?
- non-renewable resources?
- political communities: exclusionary v. inclusionary
- power, authority, territory, loyalty all centered upon sov. state
- de-center the state
- de-naturalize the state
- ethical particularism leading to exclusion
- state shapes interpersonal bonds & moral obligations
- certain ethical obligations are considered due to co-citizens, but not to all humanity
- when universalistic rights are available to all, these are secondary
- restore notion of ideal human community on global level
- state represents limited moral community
- legitimizes war
- promotes exclusion
- national boundaries
- should not be considered as morally significant
- should not be used to justify violations of norms or justice against culturally diverse others
- respect differences
- reflect changing world orders
- need to move to more open, inclusive forms
- replace Westphalia with cosmopolitan structures of global governance
- humans (not citizens) need to treat each other as free and equal
- moral/legal/political principles shd be universalized
- disconnect link between sovereignty and political association