PLS 370-A01

Johan Galtung

  • direct violence (simple physical violence)
  • structural violence (socio-economic structure)
  • cultural violence (the culture directly legitimates both of the above)

English School

  • p.245
  • 1940’s-50’s
    • development of positivism/behavioralism
  • int’l system
  • int’l society
    • arises from commonly-agreed rules, regimes, norms
    • based upon common interests
    • power combined with value judgments
  • goal of global/world society
  • systematic science
  • draws heavily on historical analysis
  • faults positivism for attempts to render a non-empirical system as empirical

Library reserve material not required for supplementary reading!!


  • read Chapter7 before Chapter6
  • all considered to be interpretive

Critical Theory

  • interpretive understanding
  • hermeneutics
  • Robert Cox
  • power exercised in all social exchanges
    • equality not assumed: involves dominant actor
  • attempts to demystify power relations
  • claims all social relations are hierarchical (domination/subordination)
  • explicit interest in human emancipation/enlightenment
    • analysis of sociocultural constraints required in order to promote
  • extends Frankfurt School to IR
  • Marcuse’: The One-Dimensional Man
  • examines relations across nations
  • seeks to promote rational & just democratic politics on global scale
  • challenges & questions traditional theorizing & seeks to change systems restrictive of freedom
  • “reflective” theory: theorist is conscious of own pre-existing attitudes; biases declared
  • goal of politics is realization of the “just life:”  eudaimoneia?
  • object of analysis = society
  • Critical International Theory: global politics
  • theories are rooted in social context
  • critical theory reflects upon theory itself
  • emphasizes political nature of knowledge
  • offers theories to promote change vs. legitimizing status quo
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