PLS 370-A01

Liberalism cont’d from previous lecture:

  • creating a preponderance of power to punish the aggressor — collective security sencourages disarmament, arms reduction, etc.
  • believe in nonzero sum outcomes — in which all win (overall pie grows) — collective goods like clean air — peace & security considered to be collective goods, indivisible, especially in present nuclear and globalized world (security can be converted from a natl good to collective good)

protectionism: key factor in Gt. Depression, “beggar thy neighbor”

focus on individual, not state

bureaucratic politics model: Graham Anderson’s The Cuban Missile Crisis

  • produced by competition among different bureaucratic agencies
  • agency interests may be at odds with each other
  • focus on maximizing budget

neoliberal institutionalization

  • trans/international interdependence
  • collective institutions
    • IO’s (formal)
    • regimes (informal)
  • forced to cooperate
    • overcome security dilemma
    • anarchical system need not mean conflict

state preferences are not given/fixed

  • how are they defined/formulated?

Liberalism challenges the unitary and rational actor assumptions of realism

  • individual/group decisionmaking
    • idiosyncratic cognitive variances
      • Jervis: potential for misperceptions
    • humans strive for cognitive consistency (data confirmation bias)
    • groupthink (Irving Janis)
    • bureaucratic decision model
  • organizational process model
    • always follow SOP
    • bureaus running on autopilot

Neoliberal institutionalism: variant of liberalism

  • interactionas among the actors have exponentially increased in a globalized world
  • these repeated interactions over time generated cooperation and good iwll, facilitating mtutual gains; realist claim of pervasive absence of trust and mutual suspicion is mitigated
  • draws attention to the increasingly global nature of problems and the transnational interdependenfe in comtemp. world; interstate system of Westphalia inadequate to address these cirses; nonstate actors like IO’s — both IGO and NGO are increasingly significant

Globalization =/= global govt, but does imply global governance

  • non-state actors, which are ignored by liberalism
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