REL 340-02

upaya: expedient means

3 vehicles

  1. shravaka (one who hears; see arhat)
  2. pratyekabuddha (independent enlightenment)
  3. bodhisattva (strive over lifetimes to become one)

Mulamadhyamakakarika: Nagarjuna 2d cent.CE

  • key text of Mahayana
  • root/middle path/verses
  • Madhyamaka: middle way Buddhism
  • s’unyata: emptiness

Nagarjuna

  • tetralemma
    • A Nirvana exists
    • B Nirvana doesn’t exist
    • AB Nirvana is both
    • AB Nirvana is neither

commentary traditions

  1. prasangika (reductio ad absurdum)
  2. svatantrika (independent)

wrong conceptions of emptiness

  • essential
  • static
  • same as nothingness

2 truths

  • laukika: worldly convention
  • paramathika: ultimate truth
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