ATH 351-01

Otzi (the iceman)

Sept 1991

Otzi’s death

  • arrowhead buried in shoulder
    • CT scan
    • severed artery or vein
  • deep cuts on hands
  • killer unknown

Artifacts

  • flint dagger
  • copper axe (style dates find to 5300 BP)

46yo male

The obesity epidemic: evolutionary origins of human obesity

overweight & obesity

  • overweight
    • BMI (kg/m2) > 25
  • Obesity
    • BMI &gte; 30
    • excess body fat
      • visceral adipose tissue (VAT)
  • Energy in > energy out

expensive tissue hypothesis

  • large brain
  • reduced gut
  • high quality diet

Early humans: H. erectus

  • encephalization
  • larger body
  • increased fertility
  • extended lifespan
  • emigration to temperate climates
  • invention of stone tools
  • hunting & meat eating
  • use of fire for cooking & warmth

archaic humans: H. neanderthalensis

  • very large brains
  • stocky muscular bodies
  • arctic climate adaptations
  • extinction

modern humans: H. sapiens

  • paleolithic diet
  • periodic food scarcity
  • physical activity
  • art
  • energy in = energy out

neolithic revolution

  • food production
    • dietary shift
      • less variety, animal protein
      • more cereal grains, dairy products
    • chronic & intermittent food scarcity
  • sedentism
    • permanent dwellings, food storage
    • increased populations
    • settlement density

origin of agriculture

  • malnutrition
    • porotic hyperostosis
    • linear enamel hypoplasia
    • cribra orbitalia
  • disease
  • high level of phys. activity

industrial revolution

  • technology & mass production
    • increased consumption
      • processed foods
    • decreased physical activity
  • energy in > energy out

human evolution: nutrition transition

  • paleolithic hunter/gatherers
    • diet: low carb, fiber, fat; hi protein
    • high energy demands: activity, warmth
    • seasonal food shortages
  • neolothic farmers
    • diet: hi carb, fiber; lo fat, protein
    • high energy demands: work
    • seasonal food shortages
  • modern Americans
    • diet: high in carb, fat, protein; lo fiber
    • low energy demands: work, leisure time, TV
    • no food shortages

evolutionary mismatch

  • evolutionary heritage
    • hi phys activity
  • modern
    • lo phys act

 

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