ATH 351-01

Homo sapiens

–       Homo sapiens Origin

o   There is an idea of combining the different species branches of homo and forming them into one and calling them all Homo sapiens.

–       African Origin of Homo sapiens

o   Africa – 200,000ya

o   Middle East – 100,000ya

o   Australia – 55,000ya

§  As to how they made it to this area, it is being debated and still being studied.

o   Europe – 46-40,000ya

o   Asia – 30,000ya

–       Homo sapiens: Africa

o   Fossils have been found in Eastern Africa

§  Have been dated to go back as far as over 200,000ya.

o   There have been fossils found in Morocco in Africa, dated back to 160,000ya.

§  Fossils of an 8 year old child have been found, since the development of molars and wisdom teeth have been much slower

o   It appears that the species left from Eastern Africa into the Middle East into Israel and then into Europe. However, they continued into Saudi Arabia, Iran, and India.

–       Homo sapiens: Middle East

o   There have been two skulls that have been found in Israel that resemble modern humans. They to date about 100,000ya.

–       Homo sapiens: Asia

o   Fossils found in Tianyuan Cave, China

§  Mandible with chin

  • Chin makes a sign of these being modern humans

§  Femur and tibia

  • Structure shows that they ate fresh water fish as well

–       Homo sapiens: Europe

o   Traveled from Eastern Europe into Western Europe and Central Europe.

o   By the time they arrived to Europe, it wasn’t as cold as before, since it was once very Archaic and cold.

o   With the arrival of modern humans in Europe, there is a decline in population size. The reasoning has not been solved yet.

§  Muierii

§  Oase

  • Both have fossils found in their caves

§  Danube River

–       Homo sapiens Timeline

o   Oldest are African

o   Second is Near East

o   China

o   Australia

o   Europe

–       Homo sapiens: autopamorphies

o   Globular cranium

o   High vertical forehead

o   Small, orthognathic face

o   Canine fossa

o   Small teeth

o   China (mental eminence)

o   Cranial capacity -1350cc

–       Basicranial flexure: language

o   There is a huge exaggeration of the basicranial flexure compared to other species to help support our head along with giving the idea of language

–       Homo sapiens: skeletal features

o   Tall, slender body

o   Gracile skeleton

o   Thin bones

o   Long limbs

o   Thorax barrel-shaped

o   Pelvis: vertical iliac blades

o   Low level sexual dimorphism

o   Long lifespan

–       Upper Paleolithic tool cultures

o   Aurigancian (40-30,000 ya)

o   Gravettian

o   Solutrian

o   Magdelenian

§  All have a connect to the term “Blade”

  • These have also been fire-treated

o   Were also big-game hunters, but began to add smaller game, shell-fish and turtles into their diet as well

§  Considered to be the best diet to have

o   There are also signs that they may have lived in very large social groups as well in caves.

–       Upper Paleolithic Culture

o   Klein: Cultural Revolution Hypothesis

§  The change of size in the brain may have cause a sudden change and growth development or objects and culture

§  Sewing together clothing, animal teeth, shells

§  They used stone, ivory, bone, and may other objects.

§  There was also a great advancement in hunting tools.

  • Placing an arrowhead on a long wooden post to create a spear was also developed

§  There could be the possibly to marking off a time, such as the days of the lunar cycle pregnancies, etc.

§  A yellow mineral may have been used as decoration for rituals and burials

§  There may have been evidence of making cloth and having it be dyed

§  Lived in tents, caves, and houses

§  They used boiling stones and ovens to cook foods alongside water

§  The FOXP2 method may have been developed around this time as well

–       Upper Paleolithic Cravings

o   Many cravings were made out of bone, wood, stone, ivory, and many more. They date to the time of 35,000ya. They have all been found in a cave in Germany.

§  Many of these cravings represent animals and humans

–       Cave Paintings

o   There have been many found all over the world, the ones mostly being European

§  Spain, France, etc.

§  Lascaux cave in France

  • The real one has been closed, but a replica have been created as well

§  Most of the animals that have been painted have all been extinct

–       Upper Paleolithic “Venus” figurines

o   They have been found all over Europe

o   They have been stated to represent fertility

§  Venus of Willendorf

§  Grimaldi is on location where these figured have been found as well

o   Some are craved from ivory and stone

o   27-21,000ya is the average range of these figures

–       African Cultural Origin

o   Brooks & McBrearty: Cultural Evolution Hypothesis

§  Began in Africa much earlier since some objects have been dated to be older

§  One of the sites used to support this: Blombos Cave, South Africa

  • 77,000ya
  • There are bone tools, stones, projectile points made out of bone, sea shells, marine shell beads have been found as well, but those are in Northern Africa.

–       Homo sapiens in America

o   It is believed that people migrated from southern Siberia into what is now Alaska into Northern and Southern America.

o   They used the Beringia, or Bering Strait to come across.

§  There were two times that they could have migrated

o   There is also another way that they could’ve used the glaciers to enter North America, or even a boat to travel along the coast.

o   There is much debate that they may have travel across from Europe instead of Siberia with some artifacts having been found and have being genetically tested.

o   They may have created a different kind of stone tool called Clovis and they have found coprolite (Poop) as well that has been fossilized.

–       Origin of Agriculture

o   Mesolithic Transition

o   Neolithic Revolution

§  Centers of origin

§  Domestication

  • Local plants & animals

o   Cyprus: small suids

  • European Agricultural Expansion

–       Homo sapiens: genetic evidence

o   mtDNA

§  Mitochondrial DNA:

  • Maternal inheritance only

§  Humans little genetic variation

  • Africans most variable (oldest)

§  LCA = African 200kya

  • Molecular clock

o   Y-chromosome

§  ZFY gene

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