ATH 351-01

Homo heidelbergensis (850-100kya)

  • perfectly transitional between erectus & sapiens
  • AFR, AS, EU
  • “premodern humans” graph: 300kya – 225kya
  • between 2d & 3d Pleistocene interglacials

Homo antecessor

  • Gran Dolina cave, Atapuerca, ES
  • 780kya
  • 6 individuals (children, adolescents & adults)
  • definitely not H.erectus based on brain size
  • cut marks on bones suggest possible cannibalism
  • may be H.heidelbergensis, but differences caused diagnosis of antecessor

H.heidelbergensis (very widespread across AF, EU, AS)

  • Kabwe, ZM
  • Bodo, ET
  • Jinnuishan, CN
  • Dali, CN
  • Petralona, GR
  • Boxgrove, UK
  • Steinheim, DE
  • Ceprano, IT
  • Mauer, DE

H.heidelbergensis:

  • 1500cc brain capacity, avg 1250-1300
  • first indications of chin
  • no definitive info on basicranial flexure allowing for language

Sima de los Huesos: Pit of Bones (Atapuerca)

  • midfacial prognathism
  • clavicle with cutmarks
  • Achulean handaxe
  • skull features similar to H.neanderthalensis, possible ancestor to H.n.

H.heidelbergensis culture

  • tool types
    • Oldowan, Acheulean
    • Sangoan (400kya, only in AFR, stone pick is diagnostic artifact)
    • Mousterian
  • big game hunting (megafauna)
    • 7′ spears
      • Schoningen DE, 400kya
  • Lavallois toolmaking technique
    • AFR origin 300kya, spread to all regions with H.heidelbergensis
    • tool manufacture innovation
    • prepared core & flakes
  • H.heidelbergensis disappears from record ~200kya

Genetic evidence

  • Human-chimp genome comparison (genetic difference 6.4%)
    • differences
      • substitutions, deletions, insertions, duplications, losses – 6.4%
    • rapidly evolving genes in humans
      • genes related to evolution of speech – FOXP2
        • 2 amino acid substitutions = human speech
      • genes involved in neural development & function
        • HAR1F – cortical neuron development in embryo
        • MCPH1 – proliferation & differentiation of neuroblasts
          • regulates brain size
      • genes involved in glucose metabolism
      • co-evolution of brain size and energy metabolism

http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2009/02/volcanoes_in_the_genome.html

  • sialic acid (sugar)
    • cell recognition, cell edhesion molecule
    • other primate: Neu5Gc for of sialic acid
    • humand: mutation for lossof Neu5Gc
      • produce only Neu5Ac (a different sialic acid)
    • sialic acid diference relates to human disease
      • malaria, rhum. arth., bronch asth, Alz, MS
    • H.antecessor fossil analysis
      • to determine time of mutation

txt

Advertisements
Both comments and trackbacks are currently closed.