REL 340-02

Bhagavad Gita cont’d

(yoga = discipline)

  1. Karma-yoga (action)
  2. Jñana-yoga (knowledge)
    • knowledge of eternal nature of atman
    • ultimate reality of Brahman
      • identified with Krishna
      • immanent in the world
      • also transcends the world
  3. Bhakti-yoga (devotion)
    • through acts of devotion, you receive prasad (divine grace)

Ramayana

(part of the Itithasa/sacred history)

set further east (then south) than earlier texts, possibly reflecting Indo-Aryan expansion pattern

  • Rama — ideal king
  • Sita — represents idealized sthridharma (women’s duty)
    • princess from town of Mithala
    • sometimes called Maithali
  • Ravana — demon-king of Lankha (represents adharma)
  • Valmiki’s R.: Sanskrit, oldest known version
    • 200BCE-200CE, composed later than Mahabharata
  • Dasharatha: Rama’s royal father
    • 3 wivcs
      • Kausalya (Rama‘s mother)
      • Kaikeyi (Bharata’s mother)
      • Sumithra (Lakshmana & Shatrugna’s mother)

Exiled to the Godavari river region: seen as populated by rakshasas (demons)

  • accosted by Shurpanakha (rakshasa)
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