ATH 351-01

*** PREVIOUS NOTES VIA ASHLEY ***

Primate Comparative Anatomy

  • Locomotion: VCL
    • Vertical clinging & leaping
    • They never walk on the ground, and mostly hop
      • Strepsirhines
      • Tarsiers
  • Locomotion: Quadrupedalism
    • Terrestrial
      • Old World Monkeys
      • Ischial Callosities – helps them keep the feeling in their limbs
    • Arboreal
      • New World Monkeys
      • Prehensile tail – helps cling to tress, etc.
  • Locomotion: Knuckle-walking & Brachiation
    • Apes
      • Chimps & Bonobos (Use knuckle-walking most of the time)
      • Gorillas (Knuckle-walking)
      • Orangutans (Use knuckle-walking, but it is mostly used on the sides on their hands)
      • Gibbons (Use brachiation more than any other species and usually have long arms and short legs are associated with it)
  • Locomotion: Humans vs. Apes
    • Vertical
    • Bipedal
      • This is the most important difference between humans and apes
      • Usually there is a sign of an arch in a fossil to determine if it is a human or ape
  • Locomotion: Pelvis
    • Innominate
      • Ischium
      • Ilium
      • Pubis
    • Human pelvis is short and board compared to the chimp
    • Apes usually do not have ay trouble giving birth because the canal of the pelvis is much wider for them, along with that weight of the babies. It is much smaller than humans
  • Locomotion: Lower Limb
    • Valgus knee
      • Full extension
    • Great toe adduction
    • Long legs
  • Locomotion: Spine
    • Spine
      • Lumbar curve – lower curve in the lower region of our back, only found in humans
  • Upper Limbs: Human vs. Gorilla
    • Long Thumb – for humans
      • Power vs. precision grip
        • Both chimps and humans have a power grip
    • Straight hand bones
    • Short arm
  • Skull: Posture
    • Nuchal crest
      • Gorilla had a very large nuchal region in their skull, while humans have a very small one
      • Gorillas would also have a very large neck region
    • Foramen magnum – hole for the spine to be connected to the skull and the brain
      • For humans, it is almost in the center of the skull
      • For apes, its towards the back of the skull
  • Skull: Jaws
    • Mandible (lower jaw) & Maxilla (upper jaw)
      • Orthognathous – straight jaws (human)
      • Prognathous – projecting jaw (apes)
        • Humans – the mandible/maxilla do not project much
        • Apes – the mandible/maxilla project
  • Skull: Mandible
    • Dental arcade
      • Parabolic
        • For humans, it is perfectly parabolic
      • Parallel
        • For apes, they are parallel or rectangular
    • Chin & simian shelf
      • Our support is outside of the jaw, while apes are inside
  • Skull: Boy Crests
    • Supraorbital torus
      • For apes, theirs is very bony and protruding
      • Humans do not have any
    • Sagittal crest
      • Humans do not have one
      • Apes have rather large ones and are very noticeable in the skull
        • Females do not have large ones, while males do
  • Skull: Cranial Capacity
    • Ape cranium
      • 350-400 cc average
    • Human cranium
      • 1350 cc average
  • Dentition: Heterodonty
    • Incisors
    • Canines
    • Premolars
    • Molars
    • Dental formula
      • Ancestral mammal  (3-1-4-3)
      • New World Monkey (2-1-3-3)
      • Old World Monkey, Ape, Human (2-1-2-3)
        • Human Adults have 32 teeth
  • Dentition: Cusp Patterns
    • Molar cusps & grooves
      • Bilophodont
      • Y-5 (Apes and Humans)
  • Dentition: Dental Patterns
    • Canine
      • Size
      • Diastema
  • Dentition: Dental Patterns (Cont.)
    • Premolar
      • Sectorial
      • Bicuspid
  • Speech & Language
    • Human Language Centers
      • Broca’s area – for most its on the left side of the brain and are not located in the chimps, apes, etc.
      • Wernicke’s area
      • Arcuate fasciculus
    • Basicranial flexure
      • The angle made by the base of the skull is very sharp in humans and is very flat in chimps. The very sharp angle in humans is associated with the long throats of humans and long larynx as well.
  • Life Span
    • Longest (average) primate lifespan
    • Long female post-reproductive lifespan
  • Facial Expression: Communication
    • Humans have very distinct faces features, while chimps only have some, while monkeys do not
  • Sexual Dimorphism
    • Extreme
      • Orangutan
      • Gorilla
      • Baboon
    • Intermediate
      • Chimpanzee
      • Bonobo
      • Human
    • Slight
      • Gibbon
  • Age Variation
    • Mandibles: male gorillas
      • 33-year old adult – much more worn, broken teeth and had fillings
      • 23- year old adult – much less worn and some teeth still intact
      • 6.5-year old juvenile  – does not have all of its teeth
    Molecular Evolution – Human Evolution & the Molecular Clock
  • Molecular Studies
    • Immunology: proteins
      • Hemoglobin
    • Amino acid sequencing
      • Beta-hemoglobin
  • DNA Analysis
    • DNA hybridization
      • 98-99% genetic similarity
    • DNA sequencing
      • Comparison of nucleotides
  • Comparative Genomics
    • Human-Chimp genome comparison
      • Differences
        • Substitutions, deletions, insertions, duplications, losses – 6.4%
      • Rapidly evolving genes in humans
        • Genes related to evolution of speech – FOXP2
        • Genes involved in neural development & function
          • HAR1F – brain evolution, active in embryonic brain
          • MCPH1 – microcephalin gene regulated brain size
        • Genes involved in glucose metabolism
    The Molecular Clock

*** END PRIOR NOTES ***

Human Evolutionn: Basal Hominins

*** VIDEO: Secrets of the Dead – the search for the first humans ***

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