REL 340-02

Indus Valley civ 2300BCE

  • Punjab
  • Indus: root of word “India”
  • Arabic: al-Hind
  • Sarasvati river: no longer flows, has dried up
  • Harappa (1921)
  • Mohenjo-Daro
  • high degree of uniformity: state-like organization
  • city layout & construction indicate centralized planning

Proto-Shiva

Pashupati: lord of animals/beasts

two dominant ethnic groups in India today

  • Aryan / Indo-Aryan / Indo-European
  • Dravidian (more support for IV civ origin)

~~~

Oldest texts: Vedas

  • veda: word means “knowledge” written in Sanskrit
  • root word ‘vid’ means to know
  • 1200BCE-500BCE
  • Shruti:
    • what was heard
    • sacred revelation
  • Indra: Dyauspitar  (sky father) / Zeus / Jupiter
  • Arya: “the noble ones”

Vedic structure

  • Brahmin/Brahman (priests)
    • specialized in segments of Vedas
      • Rig Veda
      • Yajur Veda
      • Sama Veda
      • Atharva Veda
    • Samhitas (1200-1000BCE)
      • poetic collection of mantras
    • Brahmanas (1000-800BCE)
      • prose manual of rituals
    • Aranyakas (800-600BCE)
      • “forest texts”
    • Upanishads (600-500BCE)
      • “secret teachings”
      • asceticism

First two parts: Karma-kanda (works)

Nyana-kanda

Advertisements
Both comments and trackbacks are currently closed.