ATH 351-01

anatomy_guide351

ath351syll_fa09

human_phylogeny351

primate_phylogeny351

Primate traits

  • appendages
    • prehensile hands (& feet)
    • opposable hallux & pollex
    • nails, not claws
  • optical
    • convergent orbits
    • visual fields overlap
    • depth perception
    • color vision
  • brain development
    • large, complex brain
    • enlarged neocortex, sensory & visual cortex
    • reduced olfactory cortex
    • human language centers
  • shortened snout/face
  • generalized dentition
  • vertical posture
  • single pair of mammary glands
  • long lifespan
  • tropical, arboreal habitat
  • diurnal activity
  • high level of sociality

hominoid taxonomy

  • phenotypic (morphology)
    • lesser apes
    • great apes
    • hominids = humans
  • genetic
    • lesser apes
    • hominids = great apes and humans
    • hominins= humans

Simple Classification

  • Hominoids
    • extant apes & humans
    • common ancestors & extinct species
  • Hominins (previously hominid)
    • extant humans & all extinct bipedal ancestors
  • Humans
    • all members of the species Homi sapiens

Cladistic classification

  • plesiomorphy
    • shared primitive trait (mammal pentadactyly)
  • synapomorphy
    • shared derived trai (primate opposable thumbs)
  • autapomorphy
    • unique derived trait (hominin pelvic structure)

*** VIDEO: The Ultimate Guide – Great Apes (Discovery Channel) ***

The primate fossil record

dryomomys szalayi

  • oldest known true primate skeleton
    • late Paleocene – 56mya
    • found in WY USA
    • small arboreal insectivore (6″)
  • primate traits
    • toe nails
    • expanded premolars

Aegyptopithecus – probably ancestor of all anthropoids!

Had “Y-5” molar configuration: now only found in great ape species!

Miocene Hominoids

  • Proconsul: earliest of these
    • “dental” hominoid

First Hominoid

  • Morotopithecus bishopi
    • Uganda E Afr.
    • 20.6 mya
    • 35-40kg
    • craniodental remains
      • prognathism
      • large incisors, canines
    • vertebrae
      • limited lower back mobility
      • suspensory locomotion

Miocene epoch: Sivapithecus – ancestral to orang

Equatorius africanus

  • possible common ancestor
    • for chimp-gorilla-human clade (hominids)
  • mid-Miocene (16-14mya) in Kenya
  • fragmentary skeleton
    • mandibular & maxillary parts & teeth
    • arm bones, scapula, clavicle, vertebra
  • large African hominoid
  • derived features
    • large, robust clavicle

Kenyapihecus Africanus

  • mid-miocene hominoid
  • derived ape-like traits
    • teeth, locomotor skeleton
  • possible direct ancestor of apes & humans

Euro-Miocene hominoids

  • pierolapithecus
  • dryopithecus
  • oreopithecus

Gigantopithecus

  • Asian hominoid
    • China, India
    • late Miocene to Pleistocene
    • 3m tall, 1/2 ton
    • 3 mandibles & 1000 teeth
      • “dragon teeth”

Late Miocene

  • hominoid extinctions
  • monkey adaptive radiation
  • first hominins (Australopiths)
  • Chororapithecus
    • ancestral gorilla 10.5 mya
  • chimpanzee fossil teeth
    • Pleistocene 500kya
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