PLS 470-B01

Gulf War II and after

consequences of Gulf War I

  • Iraq comes out with huge army
  • 1million + troops
  • lots of WMD
  • huge debts ($100million +)
  • Saddam claims victory
  • more popular than ever
  • Eyes on Kuwait

Sources of debt

  • Western: $30 billion
  • USSR: $10 billion
  • Saudi & Kuwait: $50 billion
  • used to build army & WMD
  • “keep bellies full”

Mo’ money, mo’ problems

  • need money fast
  • oil infrastructure destroyed
  • million man army to demobilize
  • generals = war heroes
    • possible coup threat

Why Kuwait?

  • historical claim
  • access to Gulf
  • Kuwait naughty/stupid
  • Iraq needed money (oil)
  • oil price $11/bbl (now much higher)
  • Kuwait exceeded OPEC quotas
  • costing Iraq $$$
  • Kuwait pumping oil from shared field
  • US (apparently) gave green light
  • Saddam’s ego & miscalculation
    • “victory” v. Iran
    • personality cult
    • Saddam = savior of Iraq & Arabs
    • invincible?
    • US would not intervene

August 2 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait

US response

  • Bush v. Pentagon
  • 200k US troops to Saudi Arabia
  • Operation Desert Shield
  • 30-nation coalition (incl. France & Arab states)
  • UNSCR authorized “all necessary force” to eject IQ from KU (Nov 29 1990)
  • deadline for withdrawal: Jan 15 1991

Selling the war

The war itself

  • 48 days of bombing
  • dismantled infrastructure
  • destroyed Iraqi army
  • Feb 24, ground war began
    • slaughter
    • Battle of Medina Ridge: 600 Republican Guard vehicles destroyed
    • no US casualties
    • lasted 100 hours
  • ceasefire: March 4

why not destroy Saddam?

  • UNSCR did not authorize
  • coalition would fragment
  • Saddam will fall anyway
  • war had become slaughter of Iraqi conscripts
  • “highway of death”
  • “unchivalrous” (Powell)

what happens after Saddam?

the problem

  • did not destroy Republican Guard
  • ceasefire terms
  • armed helicopters OK
  • Guard & choppers put to good use
    • saved Saddam’s regime

Why no US support for uprising?

consequences

  • 10k+ Shia killed
  • massive Kurdish refugee problem
  • feeling of betrayal
  • problem in 2003
  • conspiracy theory
    • no US interest in removing Saddam

Three Kings movie

  • 3 pages, double-spaced, due next THU
  • “The outcome of the 1991 Gulf War was clearcut in military terms, but ambiguous in political and moral terms. How (and how well) does the file 3 Kings reflect this ambiguity?”
Advertisements
Both comments and trackbacks are currently closed.