PLS 471-B01

Kurdish elections

Kurdistan Democartic Party

  • Massoud Barzani
  • Nechervan Barzani

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

  • Jalal Talabani
  • Dr. Barham Saleh

Baath party dominance 1968-1988

Gen. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr: Prez
Saddam Hussein: VP, internal security

Problems facing Baath

  • controlling military
  • how to coup-proof the regime
  • Kurds
  • Shia

Baath party structure (trans-national)

  • Arab world
  • State level (IQ, SY)
  • provincial level
  • city level
  • military/bureau
  • village/neighborhood

structure provides

  • deep penetration of society
  • eyes and ears everywhere
  • incentive system
  • mass/elite membership
  • maximum: 1/10 of population
  • party loyalty = career advancement
  • disloyalty is major problem
  • discipline

the military

  • purges
  • staff jobs with family members
  • tribe members
  • from around Tikrit

Republican Guard

  • buffer force to protect regime from army
  • stationed around Baghdad
  • staffed by tribe/family
  • well equipped
  • well paid

Kurds

  • civil war since 1961
  • supported by Iran, US, Syria
  • March Manifesto (1970) recognized
    • ethnic status
    • autonomy
    • language
    • share of Kirkuk oil
    • promises of democracy
    • census
    • Kurds stop fighting, end relations with Iran
  • Saddam reneged
  • begins to “Arabize” Kirkuk
  • Kurds back with Iran by 1973
  • fighting resumed
  • Saddam cuts deal with Iran 1975
    • Iran, US break off support for Kurds
    • Saddam crushes revolt

Shia

  • majority population of Iraq
  • Poor
  • Baath: secular
  • threat to religious leaders
  • carrot & stick
    • crush dissent
    • spread the wealth, but not power

what wealth?

  • Saddam nationalized Iraqi oil 1972-73
  • Western companies ejected
  • treaty of friendship with USSR
  • price of oil skyrockets 1973

spreading the wealth

  • highway system
  • irrigation
  • oil pipeline systems
  • rural electrification
  • free tv, fridge, etc

education

  • 84% increase in education budget 1977
  • 60k teachers recruited (13 million population)
  • 1/6 Iraqis involved
  • free education, all levels: 1978
  • compulsory education from ages 6-15
  • 2 million become literate by 1982

women

  • 34% educated in 1970
  • 95% by 1980
  • 46% teachers, 30% MDs, 50% DDS by 1980
  • allowed in army 1977

OTOH

  • free tv’s = easier to spread propaganda
  • universal education = indoctrination
    • especially kids

Baath textbooks

  • writing exercise, verb tense analysis
    • “Jerusalem is always in Mr. Hussein’s sight”
    • “We do out best to serve our country and our people. As our beloved leader, President Saddam Hussein says ‘Serving the Iraqi people is a duty.'”

Youth organizations

  • age 6-10: Pioneers
  • 10-15: Vanguard
  • 15-20: Youth Organization
  • Boy Scouts with AK’s, analogous to Hitler Youth

1979

  • Saddam in total control
  • all enemies eliminated
  • Kurds tamed
  • Shia crushed/bribed
  • Saddam very popular
  • time for al-Bakr to retire?

Iranian Islamic Revolution

  • Khomeini takes over
  • radical Shia theocracy
  • pledge to export revolution
  • calls for overthrow of Saddam
  • pumps money from Iran into Iraq
  • tries to start uprising
  • Iraq invades Sept 1980

Role of the West

  • support for both sides, and neither
  • “too bad both sides can’t lose” Kissinger
  • after 1984 US tilts to Iraq
  • huge arms supplies, WMD materials
  • mainly from Germany, UK, France

consequences of war

  • Iraq ends up with huge army: 1 million+
  • lots of WMD
  • huge debt ($100 million +)
  • Saddam claimed victory
  • Saddam more popular than ever
  • begins to eye Kuwait
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