CST 241-04

definitions

  • Power
    • ability to control resources
  • authority
    • ability to coerce others
  • political ideology
    • shared values that legitimize power
  • ascribed status
    • based on birth
  • achieved status
    • based on accomplishment

Band societies

  • Band
    • small group associated with specific territory
      • foragers
    • bilateral kinship
    • egalitarian
    • decisions by consensus
    • informal social control
      • gossip, ridicule, shunning
      • song duels (Inuit)

Tribal societies

  • group descended from common ancestor
  • unilineal kinship
    • horticulture/pastoral
    • Tiv, Native Amer.
  • Age set/age grade associations
  • temporary chiefs/bigmen
  • warfare
  • mediation
    • Leopard Skin chief
    • Kpelle moot

Chiefdoms

  • centralized leadership in ranked society
  • chief
    • political power, religious authority
  • social status of lineages vary (ranked)
  • horticulturalists & pastoralists
    • Trobriand islanders, Basseri
  • Chief resolves conflicts
    • limited power & authority

state societies

  • centralized government bureaucracy
  • agriculture & industrialism
  • legal monopoly over use of force
    • warfare
    • internal social control
  • citizenship priority over family ties
  • ethnic diversity
  • social stratification
  • hegemony of elite cultural values
  • Zulu, Asante, Inca, China

theoretical approach

  • neo-evolution
    • single theory of cultural evolution (now disproved)
      • all modern societies passed through same stages
        • band – tribe – chiefdom – state

Sex & Gender

gender (ascribed status)

  • universal male dominance
    • manhood puzzle, machismo, honor
  • cultural construction
    • Mead: Arapesh, Mundugamor, Tchambuli
    • woman as weak
    • woman as dangerous
  • alternative genders
    • hijra, xanith, two-spirit

theoretical approaches

  • feminist anthropology
    • theories of female subordination
      • production vs. reproduction (Friedl)
      • public v. domestic sphere (Rosaldo)
      • egalitarian v. stratified societies (Leacock)
  • Sociobiology
    • universal male dominance = adaptive
      • natural selection, genertic basis (Wilson)
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