CST 241-04

Subsistence (making a living, producing food)

Non-Western Systems

  • foraging
    • gathering vegetables and hunting animals
    • low population density
    • nomadic
    • conflict avoidance
    • social equality & sharing
  • pastoralism
    • raising animals (privately owned animals)
    • transhumance (at least 2 places to semi-settle at different times of the year)
    • interaction with farmers
  • horticulture
    • swidden (slash & burn) farming
    • permanent villages
    • ethnobotany

Western Systems

  • agriculture
    • technology: plow, irrigation, chemicals
    • intensive lablor
    • surplus for sale
    • peasants
    • monetarization
  • industrialism
    • technology
    • urbanization
    • social stratification
    • monetarization

Theoretical approaches

  • cultural ecology
    • culture and environment (Steward)
    • technology & energy (White)
  • ecological functionalism
    • successful exploitation of environment (Harris)
Advertisements
Both comments and trackbacks are currently closed.