PHL 215-01

Exercise 1-3

1. All human beings have reasoning ability.
not susceptible to conceptual CE

2. If there were fewer than 10 people in this room, then there would have to be fewer than 5 people in this room. CE possible: any number of people from 5-9 could be in the room.
3. If something has reasoning ability, then it will necessarily count as a human being.
conceptual CE possible: platypus(!), dolphin, chimp, gorilla
4. There have never been more than 100 people in this room. CE not possible, factual claim
5. If you believe something, and if what you believe is true, then the thing you believe will necessarily count as
knowledge.
CE possible: “lucky guess” example
6. To count as a dog, an animal has to have four legs. CE possible – 3-legged dog
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Std. definition of knowledge: true justified beliefs

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