CLS 150-01

Pompey the Great 106-48 BC (Cont’d)

  • 63BC took Jerusalem, looted Temple
  • No role for the Senate in any of this; Pompey acted as if he were a monarch
  • First Triumvirate: 60 BC

  • Pompey forced to make INFORMAL alliance with his twho chief rivals: combined they were unstoppable
  • Marcus Licinius Crassus: wealthiest, wanted command in east, laws to help tax collectors
  • Triumvirate: 3-man agreement/group
  • Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44BC): wanted triumph for wars in Spain and to stand for consulship at same time (doing both @ same time: illegal)
  • Caesar consul for 59 BC: attained goals of other two
  • Caesar for speial 5 year command in Gaul: Pompey got Spain as province; Crassus command v. Parthia in east
  • Pompey married Caesar’s daughter Julia (but she dies in 54)
  • 53 BC Crassus killed and his army defeated at Carrhae
  • Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)

  • Old but recently inactive family (descended from Venus)
  • Bribed his way to post of Pontifex Maximus (chief priest)
  • 62 BC elected Praetor; late won booty as governor of Spain
  • deaths of Juluia (54 BC) and Crassus (53 BC) broke balance of triumvirate
  • Caesar had great military success in Gaul; wrote an account: Commentaries on Gallic Wars
  • gang violence in Rome: no elections for 53 BC
  • 52 BC Senate appoints Pompey sole consul to restore order
  • Optimates (Senate) now aligned with Pompey against Caesar
  • Caesar denied request to run in absentia for consul in 50 BC
  • 49 BC Caesar refuses to lay down his command & instead orders his army to cross the Rubicon on approach to Rome (not allowed to bring military so close to Rome)
  • Civil War, Caesar v. Pompey

  • Pompey & most of Senate flee to Greece in 49 BC
  • Caeasr defeats Pompey in 48 BC @ Pharsalus
  • Pompey murdered in Egypt by Ptolemy XIII
  • Caesar in Egypt, seduced by Cleopatra VII; then mops up other resistance in east: veni vidi vici
  • Caesar holds all power by 45 BC; Dictator for life (can’t call himself king)
  • Caesar’s clementia (clemency, mercy)
  • Caesar’s major public works, cancels debts, colonies for veterans, reforms calendar, granted citizenship to allies, rebuilds Carthage
  • EXTREMELY popular with all — except ultra Optimates
  • Caesar murdered by small group of plotters, March 15 44 BC (Ides of March)
  • Brutus: descendant of Caesar?
  • Octavian triumphant, 44-31 BC

  • Brutus & Cassius lead conspiracy to kill Caesar, ides of March 44 BC
  • who will fill the vacuum?
  • Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony): consul for 44 BC: Caesar’s right hand man, popoular with troops, experienced general
  • Marcus Lepidus: another Caesarian, commanded troops near Rome
  • Gaius Octavius, 18 year old grand-nephew of Caesar; adopted in Caesar’s will: becomes Gaius Julis Caesar Octavianus (Octavian)
  • the conspirators< seem to have had nothing in mind except killing Caesar
  • The Senate: Marcus Tullius Cicero its ablest spokesman, hoped to use young Octavian against Antony
  • Octavian’s names:
    • Gaius Octavius, 63 BC
    • Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian) 44 BC
    • Augustus (27 BC)
    • dies AD 14
  • The Second Triumvirate 43 BC

  • Octavian wins support of Caesar’s veterans; too much for Cicero to control, extorts consulship from Senate, astutely exploits position as Caesar’s heir
  • Antony, Lepidus, Octavian force Senate to recognize officially their alliance as emergency arrangement to restore the state; the 3 had absolute powers; proscriptions: Cicero @ top of list
  • January 42 BC Caesar officially deified, thus Octavian was Filius Divi = son of a god
  • Brutus & Cassius go to east, raise armies, Antony & Octavian follow & defeat them in >strong>2 battles at Phillipi in NE Greece in 42 BC;Caesar’s death avenged
  • Triumvirs divide world: Antony takes East, Octavian Italy & west; Lepidus got N. Africa
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