CLS 150-01

Know these dates and phases for final

    431-404: Peloponnesian War (Athens v. Sparta)

  • Phase I (431-421): The Archidamian War (Pylos 425, Amphipolis 424)
  • Phase II (421-413): The Peace of Nicias; Sicilian Expedition 415-413
  • Phase III (412-404): The Ionian/Decelean War

  • Alcibiades assassinated in exile, 404
  • Disaster for Athens in Syracuse on Siciliy (415-413)

  • Sicily wealthy, excellent source of grain, close to Carthage and Italy
  • Huge force leaves Athens under 3 generals, Alcibiades, Nicias & Lamachus
  • alcibiades recalled soon after arriving; flees to Sparta
  • War of the wall-builders: Athenians try to wall of Syracuse
  • Sparta sends one man to help, the general Gylippus
  • Athenians send a huge reinforcement expedition; defeat on Epipolae @ night
  • upset win for Syracusan navy inside the Great Harbor @ Syracuse — Salamis in reverse for Athenians
  • Athenians try to escape overland to allied city; most slaughtered; survivors put to work in quarries
  • war shifts to Aegean as Persia enters struggle on Spartan side
  • Phase III: Ionian / Decelena War (412-404)

  • Athens quickly reasserts control over allies
  • Alciabiades’ advice to Persians
  • 411 Democracy overthrown briefly @ Athens
  • Alcibiades recalled by Athens and has some military success
  • Money key: Persia finances Spartan navy
  • Spartan commander Lysander (407)
  • Persian governor, Cyrus the Younger, arrives
  • Lysander destroys last Athenian fleet in 405 @ Aegospotami (Goat Creek)
  • Athenians starved into surrender
  • The Greek World 404-338: the failings of empire

  • First Sparta, then Thebes, and even a revived Athens try to gain hegemony
  • Persia = powerbroker (so what happened to the pan-Hellenic spirit of Thermopylae, Salamis & Plataea? there was none)
  • Easy come, easy go: alliances shift rapidly
  • Warfare becomes more specialized, year round business; full time elite units at Thebes and in Arcadian cities
  • Sacred Band: made up of erasetes & eromenos
  • New Athenian Sea League (377), an alliance not empire, but never achieves dominance of 5th century Athenian empire
  • in sum: internecine strife, energy/resources wasted
  • to the north, the sleeping giant of Macedonia stirs
  • 404-338 overview

  • 401: Sparta backs Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes
  • 399 Sparta v. Persia
  • 395 Athens, Thebes Corinth join Persia v. Sparta (Corinthian War)
  • 387: King’s Peace: Sparta & Persia make terms — Persia supports Sparta, gets Ionian Gk cities
  • 377: Athens founds Second Sea League, rise of Thebes
  • 371 Thebes defeats Sparta @ Leuctra; Epaminondas the Theban
  • 370 Epaminondas invades Laconia, frees Mesenia
  • 362 Battle of Mantineia; Death of Epaminondas (end of Spartan power)
  • 359 Philip II becomes king of Macedon
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